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Table 4 Factors associated with increased likelihood of poor metabolic control (HbA1c > =8.0%)

From: The complex interplay between clinical and person-centered diabetes outcomes in the two genders

Covariates a Categories Men Women
   OR 95%CI OR 95%CI
AGE by 5 years   0.97 0.95–0.99 0.98 0.96–1.00
School education High school or university 0.87 0.80–0.95 0.92 0.82–1.03
  Middle school 0.95 0.87–1.03 0.94 0.84–1.05
  Primary school 1.00 - 1.00 -
Living status Spouse / sons 1.00 - 1.00 -
  Alone 0.89 0.77–1.03 1.08 0.97–1.22
  Other 1.01 0.88–1.15 1.14 0.93–1.39
Smoker Ex 0.99 0.92–1.07 1.05 0.94–1.17
  Yes 0.97 0.89–1.07 1.03 0.89–1.20
  No 1.00 - 1.00 -
BMI 0–27.0 0.91 0.84–0.99 0.93 0.84–1.03
  27.1–30.0 0.89 0.82–0.97 0.91 0.82–1.01
  >30.0 1.00 - 1.00 -
Diabetes duration <=5.0 years 1.31 1.20–1.43 1.33 1.20–1.48
  5.1–10.0 years 1.26 1.15–1.38 1.13 1.01–1.26
  >10.0 years 1.00 - 1.00 -
Treatment class OHAs + insulin 1.31 1.20–1.43 1.33 1.20–1.48
  Insulin only 1.26 1.15–1.38 1.13 1.01–1.26
  OHAs only 1.00 - 1.00 -
No. of diabetes complications > = 1 0.94 0.87–1.01 0.94 0.86–1.03
  0 1.00 - 1.00 -
SF12 – PCS Tertile 1 1.04 0.95–1.14 0.98 0.88–1.09
  Tertile 2 1.01 0.93–1.10 0.93 0.84–1.02
  Tertile 3 1.00 - 1.00 -
WHO-5 <=28 1.03 0.92–1.16 1.01 0.92–1.12
  >28 1.00 - 1.00 -
DES Tertile 1 1.09 0.99–1.19 1.07 0.96–1.20
  Tertile 2 1.00 0.92–1.08 0.91 0.82–1.00
  Tertile 3 1.00 - 1.00 -
PAID-5 > 40 Yes 1.00 0.93–1.08 1.15 1.05–1.25
  No 1.00 - 1.00 -
GSDT Tertile 1 1.24 0.93–1.65 0.91 0.62–1.33
  Tertile 2 1.09 0.99–1.19 1.07 0.96–1.20
  Tertile 3 1.00 0.92–1.08 0.91 0.82–1.00
PACIC Tertile 1 1.02 0.93–1.11 0.87 0.77–1.00
  Tertile 2 0.94 0.87–1.03 0.92 0.82–1.02
  Tertile 3 1.00 - 1.00 -
HCCQ Tertile 1 0.93 0.87–1.00 1.08 0.98–1.18
  Tertile 2–3 1.00 - 1.00 -
PSS Tertile 1 1.02 0.93–1.11 1.02 0.91–1.13
  Tertile 2 0.99 0.92–1.07 1.00 0.90–1.12
  Tertile 3 1.00 - 1.00 -
  1. a Covariates tested in the fully adjusted model: Age, school education, living status, smoking, BMI, diabetes duration, glucose-lowering treatment class, presence of diabetes complications, PAID-5 > 40, WHO-5 < =28, and tertiles of SF12 – PCS, DES, GSDT, PACIC, HCCQ, and PSS. Tertiles were identified separately for men and women. Tertiles 2 and 3 coincided for HCCQ scores in both genders due to the extreme skewness of the distribution. Covariates related to statistically significant associations in men or women are in bold