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Table 3 Person-centered indicators in men and women with type 2 diabetes. Crude data are expressed as mean and standard deviation (std); adjusted data are expressed as mean and standard error (se)

From: The complex interplay between clinical and person-centered diabetes outcomes in the two genders

   Crude scores Adjusted scores a
Person-centered care indicator Person-centered indicator Men Women p-value Men Women p-value
   Mean (std) Mean (std)   Mean (se) Mean (se)  
Physical functioning SF12 – PCS 44.9 (9.1) 40.3 (9.9) <0.0001 44.0 (0.32) 40.8 (0.37) <0.0001
Psychological well-being WHO-5 62.5 (21.1) 49.5 (23.7) <0.0001 61.2 (0.80) 50.7 (0.96) <0.0001
Self-care activities DSCA-Diet 5.0 (1.9) 5.0 (2.0) 0.79 4.9 (0.07) 5.0 (0.09) 0.26
  DSCA-Exe 3.4 (2.6) 2.7 (2.5) <0.0001 3.1 (0.09) 2.7 (0.11) 0.002
  DSCA-SMBG 3.8 (2.6) 4.3 (2.5) <0.0001 3.8 (0.09) 4.2 (0.10) 0.004
  DSCA-Feet 3.2 (2.8) 3.8 (2.8) <0.0001 3.1 (0.10) 3.9 (0.12) <0.0001
  DSCA-Drugs 6.6 (1.4) 6.6 (1.4) 0.89 6.6 (0.05) 6.6 (0.06) 0.88
Empowerment DES 80.3 (15.3) 78.4 (16.2) 0.004 78.5 (0.56) 77.8 (0.66) 0.46
Diabetes distress PAID-5 42.0 (26.9) 51.4 (28.1) <0.0001 41.8 (1.00) 49.4 (1.19) <.0001
Satisfaction with treatment GSDT 80.7 (11.9) 78.8 (12.9) 0.0004 80.8 (0.44) 79.1 (0.53) 0.01
Barriers to medication taking BM 24.4 (9.1) 26.0 (10.5) <0.0001 24.1 (0.33) 25.7 (0.39) 0.003
Experience of access to chronic illness care PACIC 74.8 (15.8) 73.5 (16.5) 0.05 74.3 (0.60) 72.4 (0.71) 0.05
Experience of health care communication HCCQ 88.8 (14.2) 87.4 (15.4) 0.03 88.4 (0.52) 86.9 (0.62) 0.06
Perceived social support PSS 81.1 (15.4) 78.2 (15.1) <0.0001 80.8 (0.52) 77.3 (0.63) <.0001
  1. a adjusted for age, diabetes duration, BMI diabetes complications, glucose-lowering treatment scheme, school education, and living status