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Table 2 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics according to gender

From: The complex interplay between clinical and person-centered diabetes outcomes in the two genders

   Men Women p a
N   1393 942  
%   59.7 40.3  
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Mean age (years)   64.4 (10.0) 66.1 (10.4) <0.0001
 Age in classes (%) <55 17.5 14.8 <0.0001
  55–65 33.3 27.6  
  65–75 35.3 37.8  
  > = 75 13.9 19.7  
 School education (%) Primary school 30.3 53.4 <0.0001
  Middle school 32.7 22.9  
  High school 28.4 19.8  
  University 8.6 3.9  
 Working status (%) Employed 30.5 12.0 0.77
  Housewife 0.7 34.8  
  Retired 65.8 51.9  
  Unemployed/student 3.1 1.3  
 Living status (%) Alone 8.7 16.7 <0.0001
  Spouse/sons 84.8 79.8  
  Other 6.5 3.4  
Clinical characteristics
 Smokers No 33.5 73.2 <0.0001
  Yes 20.2 11.4  
  Ex 46.3 15.5  
 BMI (Kg/m2)   29.7 (5.9) 31.0 (6.1) <0.0001
 Diabetes duration (years)   13.4 (15.1) 15.5 (15.6) 0.006
 Mean HbA1c (%)   7.6 (1.5) 7.8 (1.5) 0.002
 Total cholesterol (mg/dl)   170.9 (38.1) 187.3 (40.4) <0.0001
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)   96.9 (31.1) 106.7 (34.4) <0.0001
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)   46.7 (13.9) 54.1 (14.2) <0.0001
 Triglycerides (mg/dl)   142.8 (116.4) 140.0 (100.6) 0.64
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)   135.1 (15.8) 135.8 (16.8) 0.39
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)   78.3 (9.3) 78.2 (8.8) 0.97
 Diabetes treatment (%) Oral agents 52.6 44.9 0.001
  Oral agents + insulin 23.0 27.2  
  Insulin 24.3 27.9  
 Lipid-lowering treatment (%)   48.5 47.6 0.65
 Antihypertensive treatment (%)   67.6 70.4 0.16
 No. of diabetes complications 0 63.7 70.0 0.0001
  1 26.1 23.9  
  > = 2 10.2 6.2  
  1. a χ-square test for categorical variables and the Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables