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Table 1 Questionnaires used and validated in the BENCH-D study

From: The complex interplay between clinical and person-centered diabetes outcomes in the two genders

Questionnaire Abbreviation Domain Brief description No. of items Scoring References
SF-12 Health Survey - physical component SF-12 PCS Physical functioning SF-12 is a widely used generic health status measure. It includes 12 items which can be aggregated into two summary measures: the Physical (PCS) and Mental (MCS) Component Summary scores. Both scores range from 0 (worst possible health state) to 100 (best possible health state); they are normalized to a general population mean of 50 and an SD of 10. 6 0-100 [14]
WHO-5 well-being index WHO-5 Psychological well-being WHO-5 assesses the psychological well-being, a core component of overall quality of life. It is also a valid and reliable risk assessment measure for mild, moderate and severe depression. A score <50 indicates poor psychological well-being, a score <=28 indicates probable depression. 5 0-100 [10, 15]
Problem Areas in Diabetes PAID-5 Diabetes distress PAID-5 evaluates diabetes related emotional distress, i.e. specific worries and negative emotions related to diabetes. A score >40 indicates high diabetes-related distress. 5 0-100 [9, 1620]
Health Care Climate Questionnaire - Short Form HCC-SF Person centered communication HCC-SF evaluates the extent to which clinicians tend to favor the autonomy of the patient or, instead, tend to assume a paternalistic attitude towards the patient. Higher scores correspond to a higher perception by the patient of autonomy support. 6 0-100 [21, 22]
Patients Assessment of Chronic Illness Care - Short Form PACIC-SF Quality of chronic illness care and patient support PACIC provides an assessment of patient perceived access to support from the health care team according to a chronic care health delivery model. The higher the score the more favorable the patient experience. 11 0-100 [23, 24]
Diabetes Empowerment Scale - Short Form DES-SF Diabetes Psychosocial Self-Efficacy DES-SF assesses the patient’s confidence in taking an active role in own management of the condition. The higher the score the higher the patient empowerment 8 0-100 [25, 26]
Diabetes Self-care Activities SDSCA-6 Self-care activities SDSCA-6 assesses self-reported health behaviors related to diet, physical activity, self-monitoring of blood glucose, foot care and medication taking. Each item is reported individually. 6 0-7 [27]
Global Satisfaction for Diabetes Treatment GSDT Satisfaction with treatment regimen GSDT assesses overall satisfaction with the medical diabetes treatment, here under the perceived impact of medication on daily life and psychological well being, The higher the score the higher the treatment satisfaction . 7 0-100 [28]
Barriers to Taking Medications BM Barriers to taking medication BM assesses what concrete barriers patients feel they face in daily life to taking their medication as scheduled. The higher the score the higher the perceived barriers. 10 0-100 [2932]
Perceived social support PSS Patient perceived support PSS assesses satisfaction with social support from various sources for managing diabetes (healthcare system, community, family, peers…). The higher the score the higher the perceived support. 5 0-100 [2932]