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Table 2 HAQL Adults - Known-groups validity for the proposed score (significant results are given in boldface)

From: Validation of the French versions of the Hirschsprung’s disease and Anorectal malformations Quality of Life (HAQL) questionnaires for adolescents and adults

HAQL dimensions Disease statusa
HD N = 8
ARM N = 60
Clinical status
Autonomy statusa
Usual A. N = 56
Lower A. N = 9
Soilingb
Grade 0 N = 33
Grade 1 N = 24
Grade 2 N = 4
Grade 3 N = 3
Constipationb
Grade 0 N = 36
Grade 1 N = 7
Grade 2 N = 6
Grade 3 N = 7
Voluntary bowel movementsb
Grade 0 N = 30
Grade 1 N = 18
Grade 2 N = 9
Overall scale 621 ± 135
p = 0.55
621 ± 135
p = 0.27
Grade 0: 706 ± 80
Grade 1: 594 ± 129
Grade 2 or 3: 473 ± 112
p< 0.0001
Grade 0 or 1 or 2: 639 ± 135
Grade 3: 462 ± 136
p= 0.0121
Grade 0: 691 ± 103
Grade 1 or 2: 544 ± 142
p= 0.0005
1- Laxative Diet 86 ± 24
p = 0.32
Usual A.: 83 ± 26
Lower A.: 98 ± 6
p= 0.0004
86 ± 24
p = 0.12
Grade 0: 92 ± 18
Grade 1 or 2 or 3: 69 ± 30
p= 0.0025
86 ± 24
p = 0.69
2- Presence of Diarrhea 78 ± 23
p = 0.34
78 ± 23
p = 0.85
Grade 0 : 88 ± 16
Grade 1: 76 ± 21
Grade 2 or 3: 57 ± 31
p= 0.0021
78 ± 23
p = 0.80
Grade 0: 90 ± 13
Grade 1: 73 ± 17
Grade 2: 35 ± 29
p< 0.0001
3- Fecal Continence 83 ± 22
p = 0.15
83 ± 22
p = 0.81
Grade 0: 97 ± 7
Grade 1: 82 ± 16
Grade 2 or 3: 47 ± 27
p< 0.0001
83 ± 22
p = 0.57
Grade 0: 94 ± 12
Grade 1 or 2: 72 ± 21
p< 0.0001
4- Urinary Continence 91 ± 19
p = 0.93
91 ± 19
p = 0.19
91 ± 19
p = 0.24
91 ± 19
p = 0.15
91 ± 19
p = 0.31
5- Social Functioning 78 ± 30
p = 0.83
78 ± 30
p = 0.11
Grade 0 or 1: 85 ± 25
Grade 2 or 3: 29 ± 25
p< 0.0001
78 ± 30
p = 0.06
Grade 0: 91 ± 15
Grade 1 or 2: 62 ± 38
p= 0.0028
6- Emotional Functioning
and Body Image
64 ± 28
p = 0.50
Usual A.: 68 ± 26
Lower A.: 39 ± 27
p= 0.0128
Grade 0: 78 ± 22
Grade 1: 58 ± 26
Grade 2 or 3: 25 ± 17
p< 0.0001
64 ± 28
p = 0.12
Grade 0: 78 ± 21
Grade 1 or 2: 54 ± 29
p= 0.0048
7- Physical symptoms 61 ± 24
p = 0.21
Usual A.: 64 ± 24
Lower A.: 47 ± 19
p= 0.0441
Grade 0 : 72 ± 20
Grade 1: 56 ± 23
Grade 2 or 3: 33 ± 20
p= 0.0001
Grade 0: 69 ± 25
Grade 1 or 2 or 3: 47 ± 20
p= 0.0043
Grade 0: 72 ± 21
Grade 1 or 2: 53 ± 23
p= 0.0127
8- Sexual functioning 81 ± 30
p = 0.80
81 ± 30
p = 0.22
Grade 0: 94 ± 15
Grade 1: 70 ± 36
Grade 2 or 3: 47 ± 27
p= 0.0003
Grade 0: 87 ± 24
Grade 1 or 2 or 3: 67 ± 36
p= 0.0320
81 ± 30
p = 0.19
  1. aStudent’s t-test, bAnova with post hoc pairwise Student’s t-tests