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Table 5 Repeated measures mixed model analysis assessing individual predictors of the EQ-5D summary score and EQ-5D VAS

From: Association between work time loss and quality of life in patients with Herpes Zoster: a pooled analysis of the MASTER studies

  EQ-5D Item
EQ-5D overall summary score EQ-5D VAS
Predictor Estimatea SD 95% CI for estimate p-value Estimatea SD 95% CI for estimate p-value
Work Time Loss Category
 Work Time Lossb vs. No Work Time Loss −0.234 0.010 −0.254, −0.215 <0.001 −16.92 0.755 −18.40, −15.44 <0.001
Time from HZ onset - categorical
 Prevalent vs. incident −0.049 0.014 −0.076, −0.022 <0.001 −3.811 1.339 −6.442, −1.181 0.005
Age category at rash onset, yearsc
 60–69 vs. 50–59 −0.002 0.015 −0.032, 0.028 0.898 −1.562 1.465 −4.441, 1.318 0.287
  ≥ 70 vs. 50–59 −0.042 0.026 −0.092, 0.008 0.100 −2.785 2.472 −7.643, 2.073 0.260
Worst Pain Categoryc,d
 Moderate vs. mild −0.084 0.013 −0.111, −0.058 <0.001 −8.842 1.075 −10.95, −6.732 <0.001
 Severe vs. mild −0.287 0.018 −0.323, −0.251 <0.001 −14.08 1.447 −16.92, −11.24 <0.001
Severity of rash (number of lesions)c
 Mild (1–20) vs.no rash 0.109 0.017 0.074, 0.143 <0.001 10.646 1.707 7.292, 14.000 <0.001
 Moderate (21–50) vs. no rash 0.100 0.021 0.058, 0.141 <0.001 8.892 2.064 4.837, 12.947 <0.001
 Severe (>50) vs. no rash 0.095 0.024 0.049, 0.142 <0.001 9.684 2.278 5.207, 14.160 <0.001
Genderc
 Male vs. female −0.005 0.013 −0.032, 0.021 0.691 0.833 1.295 −1.711, 3.377 0.520
Impaired immune statusc, e
 Yes vs. no −0.034 0.025 −0.084, 0.016 0.181 −1.876 2.472 −6.734, 2.983 0.448
Presence of complications from HZc
 Yes vs. no −0.012 0.014 −0.040, 0.016 0.400 −5.016 1.370 −7.707, −2.324 <0.001
Employment statusc
 Full time vs. part time 0.008 0.016 −0.024, 0.040 0.612 −1.919 1.574 −5.011, 1.173 0.223
Geographic regionc,f
 Latin America vs. Asia 0.030 0.017 −0.004, 0.064 0.191 3.245 1.628 0.047, 6.443 0.098
 North America vs. Asia −0.043 0.017 −0.076, −0.010 0.011 −5.146 1.583 −8.257, −2.035 0.001
Country category (income)c, g
 High vs. Upper Middle −0.052 0.014 −0.079, −0.026 <0.001 −6.616 1.290 −9.151, −4.081 <0.001
  1. SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval, HZ Herpes Zoster, WPQ Work and Productivity Questionnaire, ZBPI Zoster Brief Pain Inventory, VAS visual analogue scale, CIS carcinoma in situ, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome
  2. aThe estimate is the relative effect of the predictor on EQ-5D scores compared to the reference group
  3. bPatients with Work Time Loss were defined as those who reported missing work due to their shingles episode (entire day or part of a day) at baseline, or at any of the follow-up visits (Visits 2–10) as assessed by the WPQ
  4. cPredictors were adjusted by Work Time Loss Category
  5. dWorst pain score categories are based on the ZBPI “worst pain in the last 24 h” scores: mild worst pain = ZBPI scores 0- ≤ 3; moderate worst pain = ZBPI scores 4- ≤ 7; severe worst pain = ZBPI score ≥8
  6. e Defined as: use of high dose oral corticosteroids, invasive cancers (with the exception of CIS and non-melanoma skin cancer), HIV infection/ AIDS, immune deficiency, chemotherapy for cancer, prior or concurrent immunosuppressive therapy, and therapy for organ transplant
  7. fAsia = Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea; Latin America = Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica; Mexico; North America = Canada
  8. gCountry income classifications are based on the 2016 World Bank economic definitions [22]. High Income= Canada, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina; Upper Middle Income= Brazil, Costa Rica, Mexico, Thailand