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Table 7 Mean of AQoL-4D utility scores and linear associations by sample characteristics using hierarchical cluster to identify multimorbidity, weighted

From: Multimorbidity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a nationally representative population sample: implications of count versus cluster method for defining multimorbidity on HRQoL

  Model 3 – Cluster-1a Model 4 – Cluster-2a
  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  Unadjusted βb Jack-knife standard error Adjusted βc Jack-knife standard error Adjusted βc Jack-knife standard error
Sex
 Male Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Female −0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Age
 16-25 years. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 26-35 years. −0.04 0.01 −0.06 0.01 −0.05 0.01
 36-45 years. −0.05 0.01 −0.09 0.01 −0.08 0.01
 46-55 years. −0.08 0.02 −0.13 0.01 −0.12 0.01
 56-65 years. −0.09 0.01 −0.08 0.01 −0.09 0.01
 66-75 years. −0.09 0.01 −0.03 0.02 −0.06 0.02
 76-85 years. −0.19 0.02 −0.08 0.02 −0.12 0.02
 p for trend <0.05 <0.05 <0.05
BMI (kg/m2)
 Thinness (BMI < 18.5) −0.08 0.05 −0.05 0.02 −0.05 0.02
 Normal (BMI 18.5-24.99) Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Overweight (BMI 25.00-29.99) 0.03 0.01 −0.01 0.01 −0.02 0.01
 Obesity (BMI >30.00) −0.01 0.02 −0.05 0.01 −0.05 0.01
 p for trend <0.05 <0.05 <0.05
Labour force status
 Employed Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Unemployed −0.05 0.03 −0.06 0.02 −0.04 0.02
 Not in the labour force −0.13 0.01 −0.12 0.01 −0.11 0.01
Level of exercised
 High Ref. Ref.
 Moderate −0.003 0.02 0.01 0.02
 Low −0.06 0.02 −0.03 0.02
Registered marital status
 Unmarried Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Married 0.05 0.01 0.09 0.01 0.07 0.01
Smoking status
 Current smoker Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Ex-smoker 0.04 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.04 0.01
 Never smoked 0.09 0.01 0.07 0.01 0.06 0.01
Index of Socio-Economic Disadvantage - Area deciles
 1st decile (lowest) Ref. Ref. Ref.
 2nd decile 0.01 0.02 0.002 0.02 0.01 0.02
 3rd decile −0.01 0.02 0.001 0.02 0.01 0.02
 4th decile 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02
 5th decile 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
 6th decile 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02
 7th decile 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.02
 8th decile 0.07 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.02
 9th decile 0.07 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.02
 10th decile (best) 0.09 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.02
 p for trend <0.05 <0.05 <0.05
Present. Cluster1a −0.14 0.02 −0.10 0.01
Present. Cluster2a −0.38 0.02 −0.36 0.01
Observations 8605 8605
Weighted R2 0.0773 0.1427
  1. CVD Heart or circulatory condition, MDD Major depression disorder, BMI Body Mass Index, MM multimorbidity
  2. aCluster-1 = CVD + Arthritis; Cluster-2 = MDD + Anxiety Disorder
  3. bβ from univariate linear regression for the associations with HRQoL
  4. cβ from multivariate linear regression models with all other variables in the table adjusted for the associations with HRQoL
  5. d“level of exercise” was not included in model-4 because it was excluded in confounder selection
  6. Significant coefficients are typed in bold font (p< 0.05)