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Table 4 Mean of AQoL-4D utility scores by sample characteristics using count method to identify multimorbidity, weighted (N = 8,820)

From: Multimorbidity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a nationally representative population sample: implications of count versus cluster method for defining multimorbidity on HRQoL

  MM2 + a MM3 + b
% Mean Jack-knife standard error % Mean Jack-knife standard error
Sex
 Male 23.8 0.72 0.01 8.7 0.65 0.02
 Female 27.9 0.69 0.01 11.4 0.61 0.01
Age
 Mean of age (yr.) 54.6 0.3 57.5 0.6
 16-25 years. 8.9 0.68 0.03 2.4 0.56 0.09
 26-35 years. 14.1 0.67 0.02 3.3 0.54 0.05
 36-45 years. 18.7 0.67 0.03 6.9 0.60 0.07
 46-55 years. 26.6 0.68 0.02 9.5 0.57 0.03
 56-65 years. 42.2 0.73 0.01 18.7 0.66 0.02
 66-75 years. 52.8 0.75 0.01 23.1 0.70 0.02
 76-85 years. 58.5 0.70 0.02 27.7 0.63 0.02
BMI (kg/m2)
 Thinness (BMI < 18.5) 19.2 0.63 0.06 5.3 0.34 0.10
 Normal (BMI 18.5-24.99) 20.3 0.71 0.01 6.2 0.66 0.02
 Overweight (BMI 25.00-29.99) 25.7 0.71 0.01 10.8 0.64 0.03
 Obesity (BMI >30.00) 38.4 0.70 0.01 17.4 0.60 0.02
Educational attainment
 Has post-school qualification 23.8 0.72 0.01 8.5 0.66 0.02
 No post-school qualification 28.4 0.69 0.01 12.1 0.60 0.02
Labour force
 Employed 18.2 0.74 0.01 5.6 0.64 0.02
 Unemployed 20.5 0.63 0.04 8.7 0.60 0.07
 Not in the labour force 42.0 0.68 0.01 19.4 0.62 0.02
Level of exercise
 High 17.2 0.75 0.02 7.1 0.67 0.04
 Moderate 23.1 0.77 0.02 8.0 0.69 0.04
 Low 27.5 0.69 0.01 10.9 0.61 0.01
Registered marital status
 Unmarried 22.9 0.64 0.01 9.1 0.57 0.02
 Married 28.4 0.75 0.01 10.9 0.67 0.02
Smoking status
 Current smoker 26.5 0.62 0.02 10.7 0.53 0.03
 Ex-smoker 32.8 0.72 0.01 14.2 0.66 0.02
 Never smoked 21.8 0.74 0.01 7.6 0.66 0.02
Index of Socio-Economic Disadvantage - Area deciles
 1st decile (lowest) 29.9 0.62 0.03 15.8 0.54 0.05
 2nd decile 27.1 0.66 0.03 10.6 0.62 0.03
 3rd decile 29.1 0.65 0.02 13.6 0.59 0.03
 4th decile 28.9 0.66 0.03 10.8 0.59 0.03
 5th decile 29.8 0.70 0.02 13.0 0.64 0.03
 6th decile 25.5 0.74 0.02 9.5 0.70 0.07
 7th decile 26.1 0.72 0.03 9.4 0.64 0.04
 8th decile 24.1 0.76 0.02 6.8 0.66 0.03
 9th decile 21.0 0.76 0.02 6.6 0.67 0.03
 10th decile (best) 20.6 0.77 0.02 7.2 0.67 0.04
  1. CVD Heart or circulatory condition, MDD Major depression disorder, BMI Body Mass Index, MM multimorbidity. Means are estimated with standard error based on the weighting strategy
  2. aMM2 + which means having any 2 or more chronic conditions out of asthma, cancer, stroke, CVD, gout rheumatism or arthritis and diabetes or high sugar levels, MDD and anxiety disorder
  3. bMM3 + which means having any 3 or more chronic conditions out of asthma, cancer, stroke, CVD, gout rheumatism or arthritis and diabetes or high sugar levels, MDD and anxiety disorder