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Table 4 Multiple regression analysis of the EQ-5D index and EQ VAS scores

From: Interrelationships among common symptoms in the elderly and their effects on health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study in rural Korea

  EQ-5D index EQ VAS score
B SE β B SE β
Gender (reference: male)
 Female −0.037 0.009 −0.127** −0.806 1.159 −0.024
Age −0.002 0.001 −0.077* −0.066 0.089 −0.024
Education (reference: less than elementary school)
 Elementary school 0.034 0.009 0.123** 0.190 1.124 0.006
 Middle school 0.042 0.013 0.106** 0.112 1.606 0.002
 High school or higher 0.062 0.015 0.123** −0.093 1.917 −0.002
Living alone (reference: no)
 Yes 0.003 0.010 0.010 3.055 1.205 0.082*
Household income (10,000 won/month) (reference: < 50)
 50-99 −0.008 0.010 −0.028 −1.085 1.286 −0.033
 100-199 −0.010 0.011 −0.034 1.857 1.443 0.053
  ≥ 200 −0.002 0.014 −0.006 1.434 1.803 0.030
Fatigue −0.020 0.008 −0.073* −2.206 1.064 −0.070*
Pain −0.039 0.009 −0.140** −1.344 1.070 −0.042
Sleep disturbance −0.018 0.008 −0.061* −2.145 1.062 −0.063*
Indigestion 0.007 0.009 0.022 −0.705 1.111 −0.019
Depression/anger/anxiety −0.020 0.009 −0.065* −1.971 1.185 −0.054
Diagnosed diseases
 Arthritis −0.043 0.008 −0.144** −3.135 1.031 −0.090**
 Osteoporosis −0.025 0.010 −0.066* −4.087 1.322 −0.092**
 Parkinson’s disease −0.104 0.046 −0.059* −11.656 5.785 −0.057*
 Asthmaa or Chronic hepatitisb −0.035 0.016 −0.056* −11.890 4.437 −0.076**
 Dyslipidemiaa or Allergyb −0.015 0.007 −0.055* −4.955 2.136 −0.066*
 Chronic gastritis −0.022 0.010 −0.056* −3.524 1.285 −0.079**
R2 0.249    0.098   
Adjusted R2 0.236    0.082   
  1. B unstandardized coefficients, SE standard error of unstandardized coefficients, β standardized coefficients
  2. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01, aSelected using a forward stepwise selection in a regression model for the EQ-5D index
  3. bSelected using a forward stepwise selection in a regression model for the EQ VAS