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Table 3 Mean EQ-5D-5L utility scores by socio-demographic characteristics (N = 2,908)

From: Health-related quality of life measured using the EQ-5D–5L: South Australian population norms

  Total Males Females
Variable n mean (SD) n mean (SD) n mean (SD)
All 2908 0.91 (0.14) 1422 0.92 (0.13) 1486 0.90 (0.14)
   Z = -3.42, p = 0.001
Age category, years
 15–24 464 0.96 (0.08) 238 0.96 (0.07) 226 0.95 (0.08)
 25–34 449 0.95 (0.10) 225 0.95 (0.10) 224 0.95 (0.11)
 35–44 480 0.92 (0.13) 238 0.93 (0.12) 241 0.91 (0.13)
 45–54 499 0.89 (0.16) 247 0.90 (0.16) 253 0.87 (0.16)
 55–64 443 0.89 (0.15) 217 0.90 (0.14) 226 0.88 (0.15)
 65–74 346 0.87 (0.16) 153 0.87 (0.16) 193 0.87 (0.16)
 75+ 227 0.83 (0.16) 104 0.85 (0.16) 122 0.82 (0.15)
 Total 2908 X 2 = 282, p < 0.001  
Educational attainment
 Up to secondary 1187 0.90 (0.15) 510 0.91 (0.16) 677 0.89 (0.15)
 Trade, apprenticeship, certificate, diploma 1061 0.90 (0.14) 605 0.91 (0.12) 456 0.89 (0.15)
 Degree or higher 651 0.93 (0.12) 301 0.93 (0.12) 351 0.93 (0.12)
 Total 2900 X 2 = 15.0, p = 0.001  
Area of residence
 Metropolitan 2163 0.91 (0.14) 1047 0.92 (0.13) 1114 0.90 (0.14)
 Regional 745 0.90 (0.15) 373 0.91 (0.14) 372 0.90 (0.15)
 Total 2908 Z = -0.21, p = 0.83  
Country of birth
 Australia 2138 0.91 (0.14) 1054 0.91 (0.14) 1082 0.90 (0.14)
 European 461 0.88 (0.16) 217 0.90 (0.14) 244 0.86 (0.17)
 Asian 206 0.97 (0.07) 110 0.97 (0.06) 96 0.96 (0.08)
 Other 101 0.93 (0.12) 39 0.93 (0.15) 62 0.94 (0.10)
 Total 2906 X 2 = 75.6, p < 0.001  
Marital status
 Married/De Facto 1791 0.91 (0.14) 900 0.92 (0.13) 890 0.90 (0.14)
 Never Married 718 0.93 (0.13) 394 0.93 (0.14) 325 0.93 (0.12)
 Separated/Divorced 264 0.87 (0.17) 94 0.88 (0.17) 169 0.86 (0.16)
 Widowed 133 0.84 (0.16) 31 0.87 (0.15) 100 0.83 (0.16)
 Total 2906 X 2 = 92.8, p < 0.001  
Employment status
 Full time or part-time 1616 0.94 (0.09) 891 0.95 (0.08) 723 0.93 (0.10)
 Home Duties 161 0.90 (0.14) 6 0.96 (0.04) 155 0.90 (0.14)
 Unemployed 96 0.88 (0.15) 45 0.90 (0.15) 51 0.87 (0.15)
 Retired 593 0.86 (0.15) 256 0.87 (0.15) 337 0.86 (0.15)
 Student 275 0.95 (0.07) 130 0.96 (0.08) 145 0.95 (0.07)
 Not working due to work-related injury or disability 118 0.61 (0.26) 67 0.62 (0.26) 51 0.60 (0.26)
 Other 45 0.88 (0.16) 23 0.96 (0.06) 23 0.81 (0.19)
 Total 2904 X 2 = 407, p < 0.001  
Annual household income
 Up to $20,000 176 0.83 (0.19) 59 0.83 (0.20) 117 0.82 (0.19)
 $20,001-$40,000 372 0.84 (0.17) 159 0.84 (0.18) 214 0.85 (0.17)
 $40,001-$80,000 562 0.91 (0.14) 280 0.92 (0.13) 282 0.90 (0.15)
 $80,001-$120,000 438 0.93 (0.10) 230 0.94 (0.10) 208 0.93 (0.11)
 $120,001+ 584 0.94 (0.10) 338 0.95 (0.08) 246 0.93 (0.11)
 Not Stated 776 0.91 (0.14) 354 0.92 (0.15) 417 0.91 (0.14)
 Total 2908 X 2 = 156, p < 0.001  
  1. SD standard deviation; comparisons of the EQ-5D-5L sum score distributions by gender and area of residence were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test. All other differences amongst groups were analysed with the Kruskal-Wallis test