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Table 3 Estimated associations of K6 score changes based on caregiving duration (using sample subset 2)a

From: How do social activities mitigate informal caregivers’ psychological distress? Evidence from a nine-year panel survey in Japan

Dependent variable: change in K6 score from pre-caregiving commencement Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
β (SE) β (SE) β (SE)
Women (N. of observations (individuals) = 4637 (1.922))
Duration years from caregiving commencement (A) 0.11** (0.04) 0.23*** (0.05) 0.19*** (0.05)
  × Participated in social activities (B)    −0.15*** (0.04)   
  [− (B)/(A) %]    [65.6*** (13.7]]   
  × Participated in social activities prior to caregiving commencement (C)      −0.11* (0.04)
  [− (C)/(A) %]      [56.8 ** (18.2)]
K6 score at caregiving commencement −0.32*** (0.01) −0.33*** (0.01) −0.33*** (0.01)
Men (N. of observations (individuals) = 2700 (1242))
Duration years from caregiving commencement (A) 0.05 (0.05) 0.20** (0.06) 0.19** (0.07)
  × Participated in social activities (B)    −0.18*** (0.05)   
  [− (B)/(A) %]    [89.6*** (23.9)]   
  × Participated in social activities prior to caregiving commencement (C)      −0.18** (0.06)
  [− (C)/(A) %]      [95.3*** (27.4)]
K6 score at caregiving commencement −0.34*** (0.02) −0.34*** (0.02) −0.34*** (0.02)
  1. aControlled for age at the first wave (2005), educational attainment, marital status, household spending (adjusted for household size), employed, number of care recipients, hours of care, residing with a care recipient, and waves. The full results are available upon request
  2. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05