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Table 2 Estimated associations in K6 score changes based on caregiving commencement (using sample subset 1)a

From: How do social activities mitigate informal caregivers’ psychological distress? Evidence from a nine-year panel survey in Japan

Dependent variable: change in K6 score from pre-caregiving commencement Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
β (SE) β (SE) β (SE)
Women (N. of observations [individuals] = 69,885 [14,356])
Caregiving commencement (A) 0.32*** (0.09) 0.75*** (0.14) 0.56*** (0.13)
  × Participated in social activities (B)    −0.50*** (0.12)   
  [− (B)/(A) %]    [66.2*** (10.4)]   
  × Participated in social activities prior to caregiving commencement (C)      −0.30** (0.12)
  [− (C)/(A) %]      [53.7*** (14.6]
K6 score one year before caregiving commencement −0.64*** (0.01) −0.64*** (0.01) −0.64*** (0.01)
Men (N. of observations [individuals] = 70,516 [13,817])
Caregiving commencement (A) 0.41*** (0.10) 0.80*** (0.15) 0.69** (0.14)
  × Participated in social activities (B)    −0.47*** (0.13)   
  [− (B)/(A) %]    [58.2*** (11.1)]   
  × Participated in social activities prior to caregiving commencement (C) –0.35      −0.35** (0.13)
  [− (C)/(A) %]      [50.3*** (13.0)]
K6 score one year before caregiving commencement −0.70*** (0.01) −0.70*** (0.01) −0.70*** (0.01)
  1. aControlled for age at the first wave (2005), educational attainment, marital status, household spending (adjusted for household size), employed, number of care recipients, hours of care, residing with a care recipient, and waves. The full results are available upon request
  2. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05