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Table 1 Infant, parent, and household characteristics at time of study enrollment a

From: Infant feeding and health-related quality of life in healthy Chinese infants: results from a prospective, observational cohort study

Characteristics Study formula-fed only (n = 140) Breastfed only (n = 136) Mixed-fed (breastfed and study formula-fed) (n = 151) P-valueb
Infants
 Age, days 42.2 ± 3.6 42.3 ± 3.7 42.5 ± 3.4 0.75
 Gestational age, weeks 38.6 ± 1.0 39.0 ± 1.0 38.9 ± 1.0 0.004
 Weight, kgc 4.9 ± 0.5 5.0 ± 0.5 5.0 ± 0.5 ND
 Sex, % male 70 (50.0) 78 (57.4) 93 (61.6) 0.13
 Birth order, % first birth 116 (82.9) 122 (89.7) 129 (85.4) 0.34
 Type of delivery, % Cesarean 82 (58.6) 66 (48.5) 85 (56.3) 0.21
 Attend day care 0 0 0 1.00
Mothers
 Education, years 14.6 ± 2.8 15.8 ± 3.0 15.3 ± 2.8 0.002
 Occupation     0.53
  Professional 42 (30.0) 51 (37.5) 55 (36.4)  
  Service or retail 23 (16.4) 21 (15.4) 22 (14.6)  
  Homemaker 32 (22.9) 17 (12.5) 27 (17.9)  
Fathers
 Education, years 14.7 ± 3.0 15.6 ± 2.8 15.4 ± 3.0 0.031
 Occupation     0.28
  Professional 25 (17.9) 28 (20.6) 30 (19.9)  
  Service or retail 31 (22.1) 34 (25.0) 34 (22.5)  
  Technician/associate professional 22 (15.7) 25 (18.4) 21 (13.9)  
  1. aData presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (%); ND not determined
  2. b p-values from ANOVA (continuous variables) or Fisher’s Exact or Chi-Square tests (categorical variables)
  3. cWeight presented for safety population (n = 148 for study formula-fed only, n = 137 for breastfed only, and n = 155 for mixed-fed group)