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Table 2 Results of the GEE analyzing the effects of offspring support

From: Does relationship satisfaction and financial aid from offspring influence the quality of life of older parents?: a longitudinal study based on findings from the Korean longitudinal study of aging, 2006–2012

Variables Quality of life
β S.E p-value
Relationship satisfaction with offspring
 Highly satisfied Ref. - -
 Slightly satisfied -7.26 0.44 <.0001
 Slightly unsatisfied -12.15 0.52 <.0001
 Highly unsatisfied -21.93 0.55 <.0001
Regular financial aid from offspring
 Yes Ref. - -
 No -0.92 0.38 0.0171
Sex
 Male Ref. - -
 Female -0.77 0.53 0.1426
Age
 65-69 Ref. - -
 70-79 0.39 0.41 0.3426
 ≥ 80 0.62 0.58 0.2842
Education level    
 More than high school Ref. - -
 Less than middle school -0.67 0.65 0.3022
 Uneducated -3.46 0.71 <.0001
Marital status
 Married Ref. - -
 Single -1.34 0.53 0.0112
Household income
 Q4 (High) Ref. - -
 Q3 -1.91 0.47 <.0001
 Q2 -4.06 0.52 <.0001
 Q1 (Low) -3.61 0.56 <.0001
Wealth
 Q4 (High) Ref. - -
 Q3 -2.05 0.45 <.0001
 Q2 -5.11 0.48 <.0001
 Q1 (Low) -9.20 0.54 <.0001
Employment status
 Employed Ref. - -
 Unemployed -0.51 0.45 0.2570
Living with offspring
 Yes Ref. - -
 No 1.46 0.43 0.0007
Smoking
 No Ref. - -
 Yes -1.21 0.55 0.0284
Alcohol intake
 No Ref. - -
 Yes 0.24 0.46 0.5991
Perceived health status
 Healthy Ref. - -
 Unhealthy -5.78 0.41 <.0001
Limits on activities of daily living
 No Ref. - -
 Yes -2.49 0.39 <.0001
Depressive symptoms
 No Ref. - -
 Yes -3.81 0.36 <.0001
Frequency of contact with a neighbor
 None Ref. - -
 Meet once a month or less -2.02 0.62 0.0011
 Meet once a month or more -0.16 0.44 0.7162
Number of chronic disease
 None Ref. - -
 1 -0.56 0.41 0.1664
 2+ -2.21 0.66 0.0008
Survey year
 2006 Ref. - -
 2008 0.53 0.41 0.2048
 2010 2.49 0.61 <.0001
 2012 1.35 0.63 0.0341
  1. Notes: Adjusting for retirement satisfaction, regular financial aid from offspring, sex, age, education level, marital status, household income, wealth, employment status, living with offspring, smoking, alcohol intake, perceived health status, limits on activities of daily living, depressive symptoms, frequency of contact with a neighbor, number of chronic disease, survey year