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Table 6 Results of the bivariate and multivariate associations between psychological factors and QoL in patients with ALS

From: Associations between psychological factors and health-related quality of life and global quality of life in patients with ALS: a systematic review

  Psychological Factor Measure Psychological factor   Measure QoL Time-points of assessment/F.U./trajectory Bivariate
Association
r
Multivariate
Association
β/R2
Ref. Quality
Score
(max. 8)
MOOD Anxiety         
Anxiety HAM-A HRQoL SF-36 total   ns/nr   [40] 6.5
HAM-A SF-36 PCS   ns/nr  
HAM-A SF-36 MCS   ns/nr  
HADS-a1 WHOQoL-BREF total   −0.53**   [37] 7.0
Anxiety - Tension POMS WHOQoL-BREF total   nr β = −0.47* [19] 5.5
Anxiety HADS-a Global QoL SEIQoL index score   ns/nr   [15] 5.0
HADS-a SEIQoL-DW index score   ns/nr   [38] 3.0
State anxiety STAIsO MQOL total   nr s**/nr [41] 5.5
STAIs MQOL total <1 mo after D. nr s**/nr
STAIs MQOL total >1 mo after D. nr s*/nr
Trait anxiety STAIt MQOL total <1 mo after D. nr s**/nr
STAIt MQOL total >1 mo after D. nr s* /nr
Depression         
Depression—Dejection POMS HRQoL WHOQoL-BREF total   nr β = −0.24* [19] 5.5
Depression HADS-d1 WHOQoL-BREF total   −0.60** β = −0.41* [37] 7.0
  HAM-D SF-36 total   ns/nr   [40] 6.5
  HAM-D SF-36 PCS   ns/nr  
  HAM-D SF-36 MCS   ns/nr  
  ZDS SF-36 total   −0.617**   [42] 4.5
  ZDS QL-Index   s* /nr β = −0.08* [43] 8.0
  BDI EQ-5D index score   −0.430**   [10] 4.0
  BDIA SF-36 MCS   nr β = −0.391** [44] 5.0
BDIA SF-36 PCS ns/nr  
  BDIA EQ-5D index score   nr β = −0.272
  BDIA EQ VAS   nr β = −0.381*
  BDI HRCS 1 mo F.U. nr s / nr [27] 4.0
  BDI HRCS 12 mo F.U. nr s**/nr
Depression x time BDI HRCS over 12 mo nr ns
Depression ADI-12 Global QoL SEIQoL index score   −0.36*   [28] 4.5
DSM-IV Single-item-question3   ns/nr ns / nr [45] 5.5
ZDS SEIQoL-DW index score   nr s*/nr [13] 5.5
ZDS MQOL Single Item Score   nr s*/nr
ZDS SEIQoL index score   −0.205   [42] 4.5
ZDSo MQOL total   nr s**/nr [41] 5.5
HADS-d SEIQoL index score   ns/nr   [15] 5.0
HADS-d2 SEIQoL-DW index score   ns/nr   [38] 3.0
BDI Single-item-question4 1 mo F.U. nr s*/nr [27] 4.0
BDI Single-item-question4 12 mo F.U. nr s*/nr
Depression x time BDI Single item question4 over 12 mo nr ns
Confusion - Bewilderment POMS Global QoL WHOQoL-BREF total   nr β = 0.33* [19] 5.5
BELIEFS Religiosity         
Religiosity IIR-tot HRQoL SIP/ALS-19 total   0.169   [14] 4.5
  IIR-tot SIP/ALS-19 total 3 mo F.U. nr ns / nr [31] 6.0
  IIR-tot SIP/ALS-19 total 6 mo F.U. nr s***/nr
Religion - coping Brief COPE SF-36 PCS/SF-36 MCS   −0.26P −0.01M   [46] 4.0
Religiosity IIR-tot Global QoL MQOL total   0.15   [16] 5.0
  IIR-tot MQOL total 3–4 mo F.U. 0.28  
  IIR-tot MQOL total 6–8 mo F.U. 0.37**  
IIR-tot MQOL total 9–12 mo F.U. 0.33*  
IIR-tot MQOL total 12–16 mo F.U. 0.46**  
IIR-tot MQOL total 3 mo F.U. nr ns / nr [31] 6.0
IIR-tot MQOL total 6 mo F.U. nr ns / nr
  IIR-tot MQOL total   0.221   [14] 4.5
  IIR-tot MQOL Single Item Score   0.331**  
Religiosity Private IIR-Pr MQOL total   0.13 β = 0.05; R2 = 0% [16] 5.0
IIR-Pr MQOL total 3–4 mo F.U. 0.42** β = 0.31**
  IIR-Pr MQOL total 6–8 mo F.U. 0.49** β = 0.35**
  IIR-Pr MQOL total 9–12 mo F.U. 0.34* β = 0.21
  IIR-Pr MQOL total 12–16 mo F.U. 0.50** β = 0.41***; R2 = 16 %***
  IIR-Pr   SEIQoL-DW index score   s*/nr   [13] 5.5
Spirituality        [16] 5.0
Existential well-being SWBS6 - EWB HRQoL SIP total   ns/nr   [47] 3.5
Religious well-being SWBS6 - RWB SIP total   −0.996**  
Spiritual well-being SWBS5 total Global QoL MQOL total   0.08   [16] 5.0
  SWBS5 total MQOL total 3–4 mo F.U. 0.08  
  SWBS5 total MQOL total 6–8 mo F.U. 0.17  
  SWBS5 total MQOL total 9–12 mo F.U. −0.12  
  SWBS5 total MQOL total 12–16 mo F.U. 0.54**  
Mindfulness         
Mindfulness LMS Global QoL MQOL Single Item Score   nr β = 0.06*** [29] 6.5
Mindfulness x time LMS MQOL Single Item Score over 4 mo nr β = 0.009
Coping         
Positive coping strategies MNDCS1 HRQoL WHOQoL-BREF total   0.46** β = 0.35*** [37] 7.0
Distraction Brief COPE SF-36 PCS/SF-36 MCS   0.08P −0.11M   [46] 4.0
Active coping Brief COPE SF-36 PCS/SF-36 MCS   −0.16P 0.11M  
Denial Brief COPE SF-36 PCS/SF-36 MCS   −0.15P 0.23M  
Emotional support Brief COPE SF-36 PCS/SF-36 MCS   0.38P* 0.10M  
Instrumental support Brief COPE SF-36 PCS/SF-36 MCS   −0.31P −0.02M  
Disengagement Brief COPE SF-36 PCS/SF-36 MCS   0.16P 0.33M  
Venting Brief COPE SF-36 PCS/SF-36 MCS   −0.10P −0.38*M  
Positive reframing Brief COPE SF-36 PCS/SF-36 MCS   −0.22P 0.32M  
Planning Brief COPE SF-36 PCS/SF-36 MCS   −0.23P 0.11M  
Acceptance Brief COPE SF-36 PCS/SF-36 MCS   −0.18P 0.23M  
Humor Brief COPE SF-36 PCS/SF-36 MCS   −0.15P 0.25M  
Self-blame Brief COPE SF-36 PCS/SF-36 MCS   0.11P −0.24M  
Substance use Brief COPE SF-36 PCS/SF-36 MCS   0.26P −0.44*M  
Problem management MNDCS2 Global QoL SEIQoL index score    β = 0.44** [36] 6.0
Problem management MNDCS2   SEIQoL index score 3-6 mo F.U. nr β = 0.42** [30] 6.0
Problem appraisal MNDCS2   SEIQoL index score   nr β = 0.15 [36] 6.0
Emotion management MNDCS2   SEIQoL index score   nr β = −0.26
Emotional avoidance MNDCS2   SEIQoL index score   nr β = 0.39*
Emotional avoidance MNDCS2   SEIQoL index score 3–6 mo F.U. nr β = 0.28 [30] 6.0
Hopelessness BHS Global QoL Single-item-question3   0.43*** s**/nr [45] 5.5
Perception of burden to others ZBI - revised Global QoL Single-item-question3   0.45*** s*/nr [45] 5.5
Cognitive appraisal         
Appraisal total Appraisal scale Global QoL SEIQoL index score   nr R 2 = 2 % [36] 6.0
Primary appraisal Appraisal scale SEIQoL index score   nr β = −0.004
Appraisal of coping potential Appraisal scale SEIQoL index score   nr β = 0.15
PERSONALITY Agreeableness NEO-FFI Global QoL Single-item-question4   nr β = 1.88* [27] 4.0
Agreeableness NEO-FFI HRQoL HRCS   nr β = 0.69*
Agreeableness x time NEO-FFI Global QoL Single-item-question4 over 12 mo nr β = −0.28*
Agreeableness x time NEO-FFI HRQoL HRCS over 12 mo nr β = −0.09*
Neuroticism NEO-FFI Global QoL Single-item-question4   nr ns/nr
Extraversion NEO-FFI Single-item-question4   nr ns/nr
Openness NEO-FFI Single-item-question4   nr ns/nr
Conscientiousness NEO-FFI Single-item-question4   nr ns/nr
  1. Note. Significance levels: *p < 0.1; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. Abbreviations: ns not significant, nr not reported, r correlation, β standardized regression coefficient, R 2 explained variance of the determinant, D diagnosis, A obtained from the author, F.U. follow-up, 1 modified version 1, 2 modified version 2, 3 self-developed single-item-question by Ganzini, 4 self-developed single-item-question by Krampe, 5 SWBS developed by Reed [51], 6 SWBS developed by Ellison [52], HRCS health-related QoL composite score, PCS physical component summary (P), MCS mental component summary (M), T0 data from baseline measurement, O overall (both < 1 month after diagnosis and > 1 month after diagnosis); Abbreviations of measurements: see Tables 2, 3 and 4