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Table 5 Estimates of regression coefficient of multilevel regression analysis for practice and patient characteristics stratified by low and high health literacy (HL) for physical and mental components score

From: The impact of health literacy and life style risk factors on health-related quality of life of Australian patients

Parameters (reference category) Regression coefficients (standard error)
Physical components score Mental components score
Low HL High HL Low HL High HL
Patient demographics
Intercept 49.17 52.60 45.11 55.76
Female patients (male) −0.49 (1.48) −0.99 (0.98) 1.38 (1.43) −0.93 (0.91)
Age, years
55–70 (40–54) −2.89 (1.42)* 0.93 (0.99) 3.56 (1.39)* 0.55 (0.91)
Born in Australia (born in outside Australia) −2.40 (1.48) 0.15 (1.0) −1.53 (1.45) −0.07 (0.91)
Owner-occupier (rented) −1.37 (2.05) −0.03 (1.76) 0.54 (2.01) −0.75 (1.62)
College/university (elementary/high School) 2.90 (1.39)* 1.29 (0.89) 0.79 (1.35) −0.73 (0.82)
Employed patients (unemployed) 8.70 (1.89)*** 3.15 (1.40)* 4.17 (1.85)* 0.49 (1.28)
Retired patients (unemployed) 6.00 (2.41)* −0.11 (1.51) 2.92 (2.36) 1.98 (1.39)
Patient risk factors
Smoker (non-smoker) −6.43 (2.30)** 0.85 (1.91) −1.89 (2.25) −0.45 (1.75)
Poor diet (having adequate fruits and vegetables intake) 0.67 (1.70) −1.06 (0.99) 0.49 (1.67) −0.73 (0.91)
Alcohol risk (drinking ≤2 standards drinks in a day) 4.51 (2.60) 1.63 (2.05) 2.26 (2.54) −1.38 (1.88)
Insufficient physical activity (adequate physical activity) −4.02 (1.32)** −2.41 (0.83)** −5.14 (1.29)*** −0.53 (0.76)
Overweight (having normal range BMI) −2.86 (1.41)* −1.68 (0.85)* 1.17 (1.38) 0.53 (0.78)
Practice characteristics
Size 1–3 general practitioners (4 or more GPs) −2.69 (2.13) −0.24 (1.03) −2.16 (1.71) 0.02 (0.94)
More than one nurses (one or no nurse) −3.49 (2.07) −0.59 (0.97) −1.68 (1.69) −0.25 (0.89)
Random effects
Variance between general practices (standard errors) 9.14 (5.41) 0.00 (0.00) 2.79 (3.43) 0.00 (0.00)
Variance between patients (standard errors) 107.43 (9.35)*** 53.60 (4.18)*** 105.15 (9.12)*** 45.24 (3.53)***
  1. *P <0.05, **P <0.01, ***P < 0.001