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Table 2 Unadjusted mean and standard deviation of PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores by health literacy (HL) status

From: The impact of health literacy and life style risk factors on health-related quality of life of Australian patients

Variable (definition) PCS-12   MCS-12  
Low HL High HL   Low HL High HL HL  
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) p-valuea Mean (SD) Mean (SD) p-valuea
Overall score 46.2 (12.2) 51.9 (7.9) <0.001 47.3 (11.0) 54.4 (6.9) <0.001
Characteristics of patients
Gender
 Male 48.0 (11.0)* 52.6 (7.5) 0.001 47.1 (10.5) 55.4 (6.3) <0.001
 Female 45.3 (12.6) 51.6 (8.0) <0.001 47.4 (11.3) 53.9 (7.1) <0.001
Age, years
 40–54 47.6 (11.6)* 52.6 (7.6) <0.001 45.9 (11.0) 53.3 (7.3) <0.001
 55–70 44.7 (12.6) 51.5 (8.0) <0.001 48.8 (10.8)* 55.0 (6.6)* <0.001
Place of birth
 Australia 45.9 (12.6) 51.9 (8.1) <0.001 47.1 (11.3) 54.2 (6.8) <0.001
 Outside Australia 47.1 (10.6) 52.0 (7.3) 0.001 47.9 (10.2) 54.8 (7.4) <0.001
Home ownership
 Owner occupied 46.4 (11.8) 51.9 (7.9) <0.001 47.7 (10.7) 54.4 (6.8) <0.001
 Rented 44.3 (14.3) 51.9 (8.4) 0.011 44.5 (13.2) 54.2 (8.4) 0.001
Education
 Degree/Diploma 48.9 (10.6)*** 53.1 (7.3)** <0.001 48.0 (10.1) 53.9 (7.1) <0.001
 Elementary/High school 43.0 (13.0) 50.7 (8.3) <0.001 46.2 (12.0) 54.8 (6.8) <0.001
Employment
 Employed 48.7 (10.4)* 53.3 (6.8)* <0.001 47.7 (10.5)* 53.7 (6.9) <0.001
 Retired 43.0 (13.7)* 49.9 (8.7) 0.004 49.3 (11.5)* 56.1 (6.5) 0.001
 Unemployedb 38.5 (13.9) 49.2 (10.0) <0.001 43.7 (12.6) 54.3 (7.4) <0.001
Patient risk factors
Smoker
 Yes 41.6 (13.3) 52.8 ((10.2) 0.001 45.2 (12.1) 53.4(8.7) 0.012
 No 46.7(12.0)* 51.9(7.7) <0.001 47.5(10.9) 54.4(6.8) <0.001
Poor diet
 Yes 46.3 (11.8) 51.8 (8.0) <0.001 47.1 (11.0) 54.2 (6.9) <0.001
 No 45.4 (13.8) 52.4 (7.6) 0.001 48.3 (11.3) 54.9 (7.0) <0.001
Alcohol risk
 Yes 45.7 (12.4) 54.0 (5.5) 0.008 46.7 (12.9) 53.0 (8.2) 0.115
 No 46.2 (12.2) 51.8 (8.0) <0.001 47.3 (10.9) 54.4 (6.9) <0.001
Insufficient physical activity
 Yes 44.4 (12.9) 50.4 (8.8) <0.001 45.4 (11.7) 54.1 (7.1) <0.001
 No 49.2 (10.1)** 53.4 (6.7)*** <0.001 50.5 (9.1)*** 54.4 (6.7) <0.001
Overweight
 Yes 44.8 (12.4) 50.6 (8.3) <0.001 47.4 (11.5) 55.0 (6.9) <0.001
 No 48.3 (11.8)* 53.3 (7.4)* <0.001 47.5 (10.5) 53.8 (6.9) <0.001
Characteristics of practice
 small practice (1–3 GPs) 45.2 (11.7) 51.9 (7.5) <0.001 46.7 (11.9) 54.2 (7.2) <0.001
 large practice (>3 GPs) 46.8 (12.4) 51.9 (8.1) <0.001 47.7 (10.5) 54.4 (6.8) <0.001
Number of nurses
 0 –1 47.2 (11.5) 52.6 (6.9) <0.001 47.3 (10.9) 54.4 (6.4) <0.001
  >1 45.0 (12.9) 51.4 (8.5) <0.001 47.3 (11.2) 54.4 (7.4) <0.001
  1. *P <0.05, **P <0.01, and ***P <0.001 are for comparison of within low or high HL differences between score of a category with the category of the lowest score using independent t-test or one-way analysis of variance
  2. a p-values are for comparison of difference of each category of patient and practice characteristics using independent t- test
  3. bIncludes patients looking for work, studying full-time, looking after family and unable to work due to sickness or disability
  4. Number in each category is as shown in Table 1 subject to small number of missing values in SF12 items