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Table 5 Baseline characteristics of independent senior participants and dropouts at 3 and 6 months

From: Frail older adults with minor fractures show lower health-related quality of life (SF-12) scores up to six months following emergency department discharge

  Participants Dropouts p-value*
N = 334 (%) N = 94 (%)
Age (years)
 65–74 148 (44.3) 35 (37.2) 0.2
 75–85 146 (43.7) 41 (43.6)
 85 + 40 (12.0) 18 (19.2)
Gender
 Women 256 (76.9) 69 (73.4) 0.6
 Men 77 (23.2) 24 (25.5)
Schooling
 Primary 35 (10.7) 12 (12.9) 0.0008
 Secondary 113 (34.6) 51 (54.8)
 College 66 (20.2) 15 (16.1)
 University 113 (34.6) 15 (16.1)
Number of comorbidities
 0–4 198 (59.5) 59 (63.4) 0.5
 5–13 135 (40.5) 34 (36.6)
Living alone, without help 111 (33.3) 32 (34.4) 0.8
Living alone, with some help 124 (37.2) 38 (40.9) 0.5
Social Support Index (SSI > 63/100) 266 (80.8) 69 (77.5) 0.5
ED visits in the last 3 months 42 (12.8) 13 (14.0) 0.8
Falls in the last 3 months 62 (18.7) 13 (14.0) 0.3
Numbers of outings/week < 5 237 (73.8) 67 (72.0) 0.7
Occasional use of a walking aid (baseline) 59 (17.8) 19 (20.4) 0.6
Baseline BADL score (14/14) 312 (93.4) 87 (92.6) 0.8
Baseline IADL score (<14) 131 (39.2) 44 (46.8) 0.2
Injury mechanisma
- Fall from own height 245 (74.7) 68 (72.3) 0.3
- Fall from greater height 44 (13.4) 13 (13.8)
- Motor vehicle accident 8 (2.4) 0 (0.0)
- Other 31 (9.5) 13 (13.8)
Location of fracture (injured body region)a
 Head 18 (5.4) 7 (7.5) 0.2
 Spine 11 (3.3) 4 (4.3)
 Upper limb 179 (53.6) 56 (59.6)
 Thorax 49 (14.7) 8 (8.5)
 Lower limb 66 (19.8) 19 (20.2)
 Multiple 11 (3.3) 0 (0.0)
Description of injury    
- Fracture only 222 (66.5) 54 (57.4) 0.1
- Co-occurring injuries 112 (33.5) 40 (42.6)
Injury Severity Score (ISS) (/75)
 1–2 35 (10.5) 11 (11.7) 0.7
 3–4 238 (71.3) 63 (67.1)
 5 + 61 (18.3) 20 (21.3)
Pain (Visual Analog Scale ≥ 7/10) 40 (12.1) 11 (12.0) 1.0
Short Falls Efficacy Scale-International (short FES-I) (<9.8) 143 (42.9) 48 (51.6) 0.3
Cognitive status (MoCA < 23/30 or TICS-modified ≤ 31/50) 88 (26.4) 23 (30.3) 0.5
CHSA-Frailty Scale
 Very Fit 72 (21.6) 21 (23.3) 0.4
 Well 117 (35.0) 23 (25.6)
 Well + treated comorbidities 73 (21.9) 28 (31.1)
 Apparently vulnerable 35 (10.5) 7 (7.8)
 Mildly frail 28 (8.4) 8 (8.9)
 Moderately frail 9 (2.6) 3 (3.3)
  1. *Chi-Square a = Fisher test