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Table 1 Participants’ characteristics according to their frailty status

From: Frail older adults with minor fractures show lower health-related quality of life (SF-12) scores up to six months following emergency department discharge

  Very fit--well
(N = 189)
Well + comorbid--Apparently vulnerable
(N = 108)
Mildly frail--Moderately frail
(N = 37)
p-value*
Age  
 65-74 98 (51.9) 42 (38.9) 8 (21.6) 0.0006
 75-85 77 (40.7) 50 (46.3) 19 (51.4)
 85+ 14 (7.4) 16 (14.8) 10 (27.0)
Male 45 (23.3) 24 (22.4) 9 (24.3) 1.0
Schooling  
 Primary 14 (7.6) 17 (16.0) 4 (11.1) 0.0004
 Secondary 55 (29.7) 47 (44.3) 11 (30.6)
 College 40 (21.6) 23 (21.7) 3 (8.3)
 University 76 (41.1) 19 (17.9) 18 (50.0)
Number of comorbidities  
 0–4 125 (66.1) 59 (54.6) 14 (38.9) 0.004
 5–13 64 (33.9) 49 (45.4) 22 (61.1)
Living alone, without help 66 (35.1) 36 (33.3) 9 (24.3) 0.4
Social Support Index (SSI > 63/100) 159 (84.6) 83 (78.3) 24 (68.6) 0.06
ED visits in the last 3 months 21 (11.2) 17 (15.9) 4 (11.8) 0.5
Falls in the last 3 months 31 (16.4) 24 (22.2) 7 (20.0) 0.5
Numbers of outings/week < 5 150 (82.9) 69 (63.9) 18 (56.3) 0.0001
Occasional use of a walking aid 17 (9.1) 25 (23.2) 17 (47.2) <0.0001
Baseline BADL score (14/14) 137 (72.5) 98 (90.7) 29 (78.4) <0.0001
Baseline IADL score (<14) 137 (72.5) 51 (47.2) 15 (40.5) <0.0001
Injury mechanisma  
- Fall from own height 134 (72.0) 80 (75.5) 31 (86.1) 0.5
- Fall from greater height 24 (12.9) 16 (15.1) 4 (11.1)
- Motor vehicle accident 5 (2.7) 3 (2.8) 0 (0.0)
- Others 23 (12.4) 7 (6.6) 1 (2.8)
Location of fracture (injured body region)a
 Head 9 (4.8) 6 (5.6) 3 (8.1) 0.6
 Spine 5 (2.7) 3 (2.8) 3 (8.1)
 Upper limb 104 (55.0) 53 (49.1) 22 (59.5)
 Thorax 27 (14.3) 17 (15.7) 5 (13.5)
 Lower limb 37 (19.6) 25 (23.2) 4 (10.8)
 Multiple 7 (3.7) 4 (3.7) 0 (0.0)
Description of injury
 Fracture only 133 (70.4) 61 (56.5) 28 (75.7) 0.02
 With co-occurring injuriesb 56 (29.6) 47 (43.5) 9 (24.3)
  Tear 1 (0.5) 1 (0.9) 0
  Abrasion 9 (4.8) 12 (11.1) 0
  Luxation 1 (0.5) 0 0
  Laceration 10 (5.3) 16 (14.8) 0
  Contusion 26 (13.8) 25 (23.2) 3 (8.1)
  Sprain 5 (2.7) 4 (3.7) 2 (5.4)
  Avulsion 1 (0.5) 1 (0.9) 1 (2.7)
  Effusion 1 (0.5) 0 0
Traumatic brain injury 16 (8.5) 14 (13) 5 (13.5)
Injury Severity Score (ISS) (/75)  
 1–2 22 (11.6) 10 (9.3) 3 (6.9) 0.1
 3–4 141 (74.6) 70 (64.8) 27 (62.7)
 5 + 26 (13.8) 28 (25.9) 7 (18.9)
Pain (Visual Analog Scale ≥7/10) 20 (10.7) 14 (13.0) 6 (16.2) 0.6
Short Falls Efficacy Scale-International (<9.8) 120 (63.5) 56 (51.9) 14 (38.9) 0.01
Cognitive status (MoCA < 23/30 or TICS-modified ≤ 31/50) 36 (19.7) 37 (35.2) 10 (28.6) 0.01
  1. *Chi-Square aFisher test bNot mutually exclusive categories