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Table 4 Significant DIF in PMH items by gender, age and ethnicity group comparisons

From: Psychometric properties of the positive mental health instrument among people with mental disorders: a cross-sectional study

Comparison Item Chi-square df P value
Women vs. Men I tell myself that things would get better (GC) 12.8 6 0.0463
I am able to control many situations around me (PGA) 14.5 6 0.0249
I am focused on what I want to do in life (PGA) 12.9 6 0.0443
I know what I need to do to reach my goals (PGA) 16.2 6 0.0125
I believe God has a plan for me (S) 12.9 6 0.0447
I am willing to compromise with people (IS) 13.0 6 0.0431
Younger (21–39y) vs. older (40–65y) I am willing to give up something if it makes my family or friends happy (IS) 13.4 6 0.0368
I have freedom to make choices that concern my future (PGA) 15.5 6 0.0168
How often in the past 4 weeks have you felt peaceful (GA) 15.7 6 0.0153
How often in the past 4 weeks have you felt calm (GA) 11.2 5 0.0481
Malay vs. Chinese I have confidence in the decisions I make (PGA) 14.6 6 0.0238
I gain spiritual strength by trusting in a higher power (S) 19.2 6 0.0039
Indian vs. Chinese I am focused on what I want to do in life (PGA) 17.7 6 0.007
I believe God has a plan for me (S) 13.9 6 0.0307
I gain spiritual strength by trusting in a higher power (S) 13.1 6 0.0421
  1. df degree of freedom, GC general coping, PGA Personal growth and autonomy, S Spirituality, GA global affect