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Table 1 Sample characteristics, significance tests, and effect sizes (Cohen’s d) across Study 1 and 2 at ages 15, 16, 19, and 24. Sample sizes reflect the maximum number of participants. Different degrees of freedom indicate missing data and/or unequal variances

From: Incremental validity of sense of coherence, neuroticism, extraversion, and general self-efficacy: longitudinal prediction of substance use frequency and mental health

  Total (N = 318) M (SD) Men (n = 154) M (SD) Women (n = 164) M (SD) t (df) p d
Sense of coherence (SOC) 15 63.55 (10.89) 65.58 (10.16) 61.82 (11.22) 2.91 (276) .004 0.34***
Neuroticism (N) 15 6.39 (3.30) 5.80 (3.29) 6.91 (3.22) 2.87 (284) .004 0.34***
Extraversion (E) 15 8.68 (2.72) 8.89 (2.81) 8.49 (2.63) 1.23 (284) .220 0.15
General Self−efficacy (GSE) 15 2.86 (0.46) 2.92 (0.45) 2.80 (0.46) 2.20 (283) .028 0.26**
Tobacco use 15 2.99 (2.45) 2.97 (2.50) 3.01 (2.41) 0.13 (274) .900 0.02
Alcohol use 15 2.78 (1.38) 2.92 (1.49) 2.64 (1.27) 1.68 (274) .094 0.20*
Cannabis use 15 1.37 (1.00) 1.57 (1.26) 1.19 (0.63) 3.06 (184.83) .003 0.38***
Tobacco use 24 3.90 (2.70) 4.01 (2.75) 3.79 (2.68) 0.49 (148) .622 0.08
Alcohol use 24 3.95 (1.26) 4.35 (1.16) 3.57 (1.23) 4.28 (168) < .001 0.65****
Cannabis use 24 1.63 (1.15) 2.00 (1.37) 1.24 (0.71) 3.81 (89.28) < .001 0.70****
SCL90-R GSI 16 0.46 (0.43) 0.45 (0.43) 0.47 (0.43) 0.44 (266) .664 0.05
SCL90-R GSI 19 0.42 (0.40) 0.41 (0.33) 0.43 (0.44) 0.37 (175) .713 0.05
  1. Men and women differ significantly at * p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, *** p < .01, **** p < .001