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Table 3 Factors associated with QOL Domains in Univariate Analysis

From: A cross-sectional study on quality of life among the elderly in non-governmental organizations’ elderly homes in Kuala Lumpur

Variable Physical Psychological Social Environment
Mean( ±) Mean( ±) Mean( ±) Mean( ±)
Age     
 60–69 years 14.8 (2.6) 13.7 (2.4) 10.9 (3.5) 12.8 (2.4
 ≥ 70 years 13.8 (2.7) 13.6 (2.6) 10.7 (3.4) 12.9 (2.7)
P-value 0.010 0.890 0.752 0.806
Gender     
 Female 12.9 (2.9) 12.7 (2.5) 9.5 (3.5) 12.2 (2.5)
 Male 15.1 (2.3) 14.2 (2.4) 11.4 (3.2) 13.3 (2.5)
P-value <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.003
Ethnicity     
 India 14.2 (3.3 14.1 (1.9) 10.4 (2.9) 13.1 (1.7)
 Malay 13.1 (3.9) 14.3 (2.7) 13.2 (4.4) 13.3 (3.1)
 Chinese 14.4 (2.6) 13.6 (2.5) 10.7 (3.4) 12.9 (2.6)
 Others 14.0 (3.6) 13.7 (4.1) 12.0 (8.0) 13.7 (2.5)
P-value 0.766 0.782 0.309 0.926
Marital status     
 Single 14.4 (2.8) 13.3 (2.4) 10.4 (3.2) 13.2 (2.6)
 Married 14.2 (2.6) 13.8 (2.5) 10.9 (3.5) 12.7 (2.5)
P-value 0.645 0.155 0.256 0.211
Level of education     
 None/primary 13.6 (2.9) 13.1 (2.6) 9.9 (3.2) 12.6 (2.6)
 Secondary/tertiary 14.7 (2.5) 14.0 (2.3) 11.2 (3.4) 13.1 (2.4)
P-value 0.006 0.009 0.007 0.194
Pension     
 Yes 14.1 (3.1) 14.3 (3.1) 10.5 (3.3) 12.7 (3.1)
 No 14.3 (2.7) 13.6 (2.4) 10.8 (3.4) 12.9 (2.5)
P-value 0.668 0.238 0.748 0.662
Economic status     
 Poor/intermediate 14.2 (2.6) 13.5 (2.4) 10.6 (3.3) 12.8 (2.5)
 Good 15.8 (3.1) 15.4 (2.8) 12.9 (3.7) 13.8 (3.1)
P-value 0.037 0.008 0.019 0.187
Outdoor leisure activity     
 Yes 14.8 (2.4) 13.9 (2.4) 11.2 (3.4) 13.1 (2.5)
 No 12.7 (3.0) 12.6 (2.5) 9.3 (2.8) 12.1 (2.6)
P-value <0.0001 0.002 0.001 0.021
Smoking status     
 Smoker 14.1 (2.4) 13.3 (2.4) 10.3 (3.1) 12.9 (2.6)
 Non-smoker 14.4 (2.8) 13.8 (2.5) 10.9 (3.5) 12.8 (2.5)
P-value 0.475 0.216 0.233 0.984
Alcohol status     
 Drinkers 14.1 (2.5) 13.6 (2.5) 10.1 (3.6) 13.1 (2.6)
 Non-drinker 14.3 (2.8) 13.7 (2.5) 10.8 (3.4) 12.9 (2.6)
P-value 0.779 0.866 0.394 0.755
Physical activity     
 yes 15.0 (3.1) 14.1 (2.6) 11.6 (3.2) 13.5 (2.6)
 No 13.9 (2.5) 13.5 (2.4) 10.4 (3.4) 12.6 (2.5)
P-value 0.013 0.078 0.025 0.021
Duration of residence in home     
 < 2 years 14.0 (2.8) 13.1 (2.3) 9.6 93.1) 12.3 (2.5)
 ≥ 2 years 14.6 (2.6) 14.3 (2.5) 12.1 (3.4) 13.6 (2.4)
P-value 0.135 0.001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Type of accommodation     
 Ward 14.3 (2.8) 13.6 (2.5) 10.5 (3.3) 12.7 (2.5)
 Twin-sharing 14.1 (2.7) 14.6 (2.4) 13.2 (3.5) 14.5 (2.1)
P-value 0.656 0.001 0.081 0.004
Chronic co-morbidities     
 Yes 13.9 (2.5) 13.3 (2.4) 10.2 (3.2) 12.6 (2.6)
 No 16.2 (2.9) 15.5 (2.4) 13.5 (3.2) 14.6 (1.8)
P-value <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Social support     
 Low 13.4 (2.7) 12.1 (2.1) 8.6 (2.7) 11.5 (2.3)
 High/medium 15.1 (2.5) 15.1 (1.9) 12.7 (2.8) 14.3 (2.1)
P-value <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
  1. Independent t-test was used for analysis and p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant