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Table 2 The determinants of the health-related quality of life measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life- Brief (WHOQOL-BREF)

From: Negative effects of diabetes–related distress on health-related quality of life: an evaluation among the adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in three primary healthcare clinics in Malaysia

  OQOL, n = 490 PQOL, n = 472 YQOL, n = 457 SRQOL, n = 560 EQOL, n = 535
  Crude B (95.0 % CI) Adjusted B (95.0 % CI) Crude B (95.0 % CI) Adjusted B (95.0 % CI) Crude B (95.0 % CI) Adjusted B (95.0 % CI) Crude B (95.0 % CI) Adjusted B (95.0 % CI) Crude B (95.0 % CI) Adjusted B (95.0 % CI)
(Constant) - 71.36 (61.34, 81.38) - 60.18 (48.9, 71.44) - 69.38 (55.35, 83.41) - 76.54 (65.10, 87.99) - 69.34 (54.07, 81.61)
DDS scorea −0.18 (−0.22, −0.13) −0.04 (−0.10, 0.02) −0.13 (−0.17, −0.08) 0.01 (−0.06, 0.08) −0.18 (−0.23, −0.13) −0.12 (−0.20, −0.04) −0.19 (−0.26, −0.12) 0.001 (−0.09, 0.09) −0.22 (−0.28, −0.16) −0.07 (−0.14, 0.01)
PHQ scoreb −0.95 (−1.11, −0.80) −0.81 (−1.02, −0.60) −0.95 (−1.12, −0.77) −0.87 (−1.11, −0.63) −0.68 (−0.87, −0.48) −0.42 (−0.69, −0.14) −1.19 (−1.43, −0.95) −1.21 (−1.52, −0.90) −1.02 (−1.23, −0.80) −0.74 (−1.02, −0.47)
Men 0.36 (−1.12, 1.83) −0.76 (−2.42, 0.90) 1.70 (0.12, 3.29) 0.21 (−1.73, 2.14) 0.75 (−1.01, 2.50) −0.19 (−2.42, 2.05) −1.86 (−4.10, 0.38) −2.70 (−5.06, −0.35) 0.90 (−1.05, 2.84) −0.06 (−2.16, 2.03)
Malayd 1.94 (0.47, 3.42) 0.67 (−1.11, 2.45) 1.35 (−0.24, 2.94) −0.70 (−2.78, 1.37) 2.58 (0.83, 4.33) −0.57 (−2.96, 1.82) 2.58 (0.83, 4.33) 1.21 (−1.15, 3.56) 2.81 (0.87, 4.75) 2.60 (0.33, 4.88)
Age (year) −0.06 (−0.13, 0.02) −0.06 (−0.15, 0.03) −0.14 (−0.21, −0.06) −0.06 (−0.16, 0.05) −0.14 (−0.23, −0.06) −0.11 (−0.24, 0.01) 0.01 (−0.10, 0.12) −0.12 (−0.24, −0.003) 0.05 (−0.05, 0.14) −0.01 (−0.11, 0.10)
Diabetes duration (year) - - −0.18 (−0.32, −0.04) 0.04 (−0.13, 0.21) −0.18 (−0.34, −0.02) −0.03 (−0.24, 0.17) - - - -
Health clinicc 0.93 (0.10, 1.76) −0.95 (−2.32, 0.425) 1.44 (0.56, 2.32) −0.46 (−2.02, 1.10) 1.95 (0.98, 2.93) −0.78 (−2.56, 1.00) - - 1.41 (0.32, 2.50) −1.00 (−2.64, 0.64)
Mosleme - - - - −4.85 (−8.95, −0.75) 0.48 (−5.52, 6.32) - - - -
Religiosityf 3.93 (1.86, 6.00) 3.07 (0.46, 5.67) −2.37 (−3.60, −1.14) 3.22 (0.27, 6.18) 5.29 (2.85, 7.73) 4.76 (1.15, 8.36) - - - -
Not married - - - - −2.20 (−4.35, −0.06) −2.11 (−4.62, 0.40) - - −2.54 (−4.94, −0.15) −2.82 (−5.39, −0.25)
Educational statusg - - 3.25 (1.36, 5.14) 0.88 (−1.42, 3.17) 2.86 (0.76, 4.96) 0.76 (−1.83, 3.34) - - - -
Employment statush 1.41 (0.03, 2.80) 2.08 (0.43, 3.72) 2.93 (1.46, 4.41) 2.34 (0.46, 4.22) 2.59 (0.93, 4.24) 1.31 (−0.83, 3.45) - - - -
Exercisei 1.61 (0.69, 2.53) 1.31 (0.32, 2.29) 1.01 (0.01, 2.00) 1.08 (−0.04, 2.20) - - 2.61 (1.21, 4.00) 2.38 (0.93, 3.83) 2.05 (0.84, 3.26) 1.99 (0.69, 3.29)
BMI (kgm−2) - - - - 0.16 (0.0001, 0.31) 0.08 (−0.14, 0.29) - - - -
SBP (mmHg) - - - - - - - - 0.07 (0.01, 0.12) 0.07 (0.01, 0.13)
BP < 130/80 mmHg - - −1.11 (−2.10, −0.13) −1.43 (−3.37. 0.51) - - - - - -
Hypertension (Yes) - - −2.44 (−4.37, −0.50) −1.73 (−4.05, 0.58) −2.83 (−4.95, −0.71) −1.97 (−4.58, 0.63) 2.96 (0.22, 5.70) 2.57 (−0.29, 5.42) - -
CBG (mmol/L) −0.30 (−0.50, −0.10) −0.22 (−0.44, 0.001) - - - - - - - -
HDL-C (mmol/L) −3.82 (−6.34, −1.31) −2.71 (−5.49, 0.06) −7.17 (−9.86, −4.48) −4.51 (−7.58, −1.44) −3.96 (−6.94, −0.99) −1.42 (−4.91, 2.07) - - - -
Total-C (mmol/L) −0.72 (−1.40, −0.05) −0.19 (−0.91, 0.54) - - - - −1.09 (−2.11, −0.08) −0.63 (−1.65, 0.40) −0.90 (−1.80, −0.01) −1.04 (−1.94, −0.15)
Dyslipidaemia (Yes) −2.18 (−3.71, −0.65) −1.53 (−3.52, 0.46) −1.98 (−3.61, −0.34) 0.32 (−1.96, 2.59) −4.75 (−6.54, −2.96) −3.14 (−5.78, −0.50) - - −3.76 (−5.75, −1.76) −2.78 (−4.48, −0.07)
MicroCx (Yes) - - - - −3.28 (−6.66, 0.003) −0.07 (−2.78, 2.64) - - −4.34 (−7.99, −0.70) −1.40 (−4.28, 1.48)
MacroCx (Yes) −4.31 (−7.38, −1.23) −4.98 (−8.56, −1.40) −4.45 (−7.77, −1.13) −3.50 (−7.36, 0.37) −4.80 (−8.45, −1.14) −4.45 (−9.42, 0.52) - - −4.44 (−8.51, −0.38) −4.38 (−8.30, −0.46)
OHA (Yes) 3.02 (0.41, 5.63) 1.56 (−1.40, 4.51) 3.42 (0.62, 6.21) 3.82 (0.43, 7.21) - - 5.37 (1.42, 9.31) 3.01 (−1.24, 7.26) - -
APA (Yes) −2.73 (−5.10, −0.37) 0.13 (−2.56, 2.81) −3.35 (−5.89, −0.81) −1.53 (−4.65, 1.59) −5.28 (−8.08, −2.49) −0.15 (−3.73, 3.42) - - - -
  1. Bs are unstandardized coefficients
  2. OQOL overall quality of life, PQOL physical quality of life, YQOL psychological quality of life, SRQOL social relationships quality of life, EQOL environment quality of life, AHA anti-hypertensive agent, APA anti-platelet agent, B Coefficients, CBG casual blood glucose, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, DDS diabetes distress scale, MacroCx macrovascular complication, MicroCx microvascular complication, OHA oral hypoglycaemic agent, PHQ patient health questionnaire, SBP systolic blood pressure, Total-C total cholesterol
  3. aTotal DDS scores range from 17 to 102
  4. bTotal PHQ-9 scores range from 0 to 27
  5. cHealth clinic = Seri Kembangan (1), Dengkil (2), Salak (3)
  6. dNon-Malay as reference
  7. eNon-Moslem as reference
  8. fNon-religious as reference
  9. gEducational status = never (0), primary & secondary (1), tertiary and above (2)
  10. hEmployment status = unemployed (0), retired (1), employed (2)
  11. iExercise = no (0), at most three times per week (1), more than three times per week (2)