Skip to main content

Table 1 The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics according to the tertile of the World Health Organization Quality of Life- Brief (WHOQOL-BREF)

From: Negative effects of diabetes–related distress on health-related quality of life: an evaluation among the adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in three primary healthcare clinics in Malaysia

  Tertile WHOQoL-BREF total score, n (%) X 2 P *
  Totala Lowb Intermediateb Highb
Health Clinic Seri Kembangan 218 (31.4) 79 (36.2) 75 (34.4) 64 (29.4) 12.40 0.015
Dengkil 123 (17.7) 43 (35.0) 50 (40.7) 30 (24.4)
Salak 353 (50.9) 107 (30.3) 107 (30.3) 139 (39.4)
Age, year ≤50 186 (26.9) 62 (33.3) 52 (28.0) 72 (38.7) 5.90 0.206
51–60 268 (38.7) 90 (33.6) 88 (32.8) 90 (33.6)
>60 238 (34.4) 76 (31.9) 91 (38.2) 71 (29.8)
Diabetes Duration, year <5 341 (50.8) 111 (32.6) 106 (31.1) 124 (36.4) 8.61 0.072
5–9.9 187 (27.9) 58 (31.0) 60 (32.1) 69 (36.9)
≥10 143 (21.3) 52 (36.4) 57 (39.9) 34 (23.8)
Gender Female 365 (52.8) 120 (32.9) 127 (34.8) 118 (32.3) 0.79 0.673
Male 326 (47.2) 106 (32.5) 105 (32.2) 115 (35.3)
Ethnicity Malay 365 (53.1) 109 (29.9) 120 (32.9) 136 (37.3) 16.48 0.002
Chinese 160 (23.3) 73 (45.6) 46 (28.8) 41 (25.6)
Indian 163 (23.7) 46 (28.2) 62 (38.0) 55 (33.7)
Religion No religion 32 (4.6) 13 (40.6) 10 (31.3) 9 (28.1) 26.22 0.003
Moslem 373 (53.9) 109 (29.2) 124 (33.2) 140 (37.5)
Buddhist 81 (11.7) 45 (55.6) 19 (23.5) 17 (21.0)
Hinduism/Sikh 147 (21.2) 41 (27.9) 57 (38.8) 49 (33.3)
Christian/Catholic 22 (3.2) 7 (31.8) 7 (31.8) 8 (36.4)
Others 37 (5.3) 13 (35.1) 14 (37.8) 10 (27.0)
Religiosity Religious 590 (85.5) 183 (31.0) 197 (33.4) 210 (35.6) 11.95 0.018
Unsure 24 (3.5) 13 (54.2) 9 (37.5) 2 (8.3)
Not religious 76 (11.0) 31 (40.8) 25 (32.9) 20 (26.3)
Marital status Married/living with a partner 546 (79.1) 176 (32.2) 184 (33.7) 186 (34.1) 4.69 0.584
Widowed 97 (14.1) 30 (30.9) 35 (36.1) 32 (33.0)
Divorced/separated 21 (3.0) 11 (52.4) 4 (19.0) 6 (28.6)
Single 26 (3.8) 10 (38.5) 8 (30.8) 8 (30.8)
Education Never 45 (6.6) 18 (40.0) 16 (35.6) 11 (24.4) 7.15 0.128
Primary & secondary 563 (82.4) 185 (32.9) 195 (34.6) 183 (32.5)
Tertiary 75 (11.0) 22 (29.3) 19 (25.3) 34 (45.3)
Employment Retired/home manager 368 (53.3) 127 (34.5) 131 (35.6) 110 (29.9) 7.64 0.106
Employed 312 (45.2) 95 (30.4) 98 (31.4) 119 (38.1)
Unemployed 11 (1.6) 6 (54.5) 2 (18.2) 3 (27.3)
Income (RM) <1000 323 (47.4) 113 (35.0) 101 (31.3) 109 (33.7) 3.32 0.506
1000–2999 320 (47.0) 99 (30.9) 115 (35.9) 106 (33.1)
≥3000 38 (5.6) 9 (23.7) 14 (36.8) 15 (39.5)
Exercise No 293 (42.5) 112 (38.2) 91 (31.1) 90 (30.7) 10.94 0.027
≤3 times in a week 231 (33.5) 77 (33.3) 79 (34.2) 75 (32.5)
>3 times in a week 166 (24.1) 39 (23.5) 60 (36.1) 67 (40.4)
Smoking Never 526 (76.1) 177 (33.7) 175 (33.3) 174 (33.1) 5.14 0.273
Stop > 5 years 60 (8.7) 20 (33.3) 14 (23.3) 26 (43.3)
Stop ≤ 5 years and active smoker 105 (15.2) 32 (30.5) 41 (39.0) 32 (30.5)
BMI, Kgm−2 <23.0 76 (11.2) 32 (42.1) 22 (28.9) 22 (28.9) 7.75 0.101
23.0–27.4 237 (35.0) 82 (34.6) 82 (34.6) 73 (30.8)
≥27.5 365 (53.8) 103 (28.1) 125 (34.2) 137 (37.5)
HbA1c, % HbA1c ≥ 6.5 515 (83.3) 168 (32.6) 171 (33.2) 176 (34.2) 0.26 0.879
HbA1c <6.5 103 (16.7) 36 (35.0) 34 (33.0) 33 (32.0)
  HbA1c ≥ 7.0 455 (73.6) 148 (32.5) 153 (33.6) 154 (33.8) 0.23 0.892
HbA1c <7.0 163 (26.4) 56 (34.4) 52 (31.9) 55 (33.7)
Hypertension No 148 (21.7) 46 (31.1) 45 (30.4) 57 (38.5) 1.71 0.426
Yes 534 (78.3) 180 (33.7) 179 (33.5) 175 (32.8)
BP, mmHg BP > 130/80 479 (69.5) 155 (32.4) 155 (32.4) 169 (35.3) 1.53 0.466
BP ≤130/80 210 (30.5) 72 (34.3) 74 (35.2) 64 (30.5)
Dyslipidaemia No 406 (60.9) 124 (30.5) 125 (30.8) 157 (38.7) 9.94 0.007
Yes 261 (39.1) 95 (36.4) 96 (36.8) 70 (26.8)
LDL-C, mmol/L LDL-C > 2.6 336 (59.9) 106 (31.5) 120 (35.7) 110 (32.7) 2.72 0.257
LDL-C ≤ 2.6 225 (40.1) 74 (32.9) 66 (29.3) 85 (37.8)
HDL-C, mmol/L HDL-C < 1.1 407 (72.2) 118 (29.0) 143 (35.1) 146 (35.9) 5.86 0.053
HDL-C ≥ 1.1 157 (27.8) 62 (39.5) 45 (28.7) 50 (31.8)
TG, mmol/L TG > 1.7 250 (44.3) 81 (32.4) 85 (34.0) 84 (33.6) 0.36 0.837
TG ≤1.7 314 (55.7) 99 (31.5) 102 (32.5) 113 (36.0)
Total-C, mmol/L Total-C > 4.5 357 (58.1) 121 (33.9) 126 (35.3) 110 (30.8) 4.81 0.090
Total-C ≤ 4.5 257 (41.9) 78 (30.4) 78 (30.4) 101 (39.3)
Any diabetes complication No 608 (87.7) 193 (31.7) 201 (33.1) 214 (35.2) 6.31 0.043
Yes 85 (12.3) 36 (42.4) 30 (35.3) 19 (22.4)
Microvascular complication No 641 (92.5) 207 (32.3) 212 (33.1) 222 (34.6) 4.23 0.120
Yes 52 (7.5) 22 (42.3) 19 (36.5) 11 (21.2)
Macrovascular complication No 648 (93.9) 206 (31.8) 217 (33.5) 225 (34.7) 6.92 0.031
Yes 42 (6.1) 21 (50.0) 13 (31.0) 8 (19.0)
OHA No 60 (8.7) 25 (41.7) 20 (33.3) 15 (25.0) 3.03 0.220
Yes 630 (91.3) 202 (32.1) 210 (33.3) 218 (34.6)
Insulin No 422 (61.2) 132 (31.3) 139 (32.9) 151 (35.8) 2.27 0.687
1 type 187 (27.1) 66 (35.3) 64 (34.2) 57 (30.5)
2 types 80 (11.6) 29 (36.3) 26 (32.5) 25 (31.3)
Number of AHA agents No 81 (11.8) 22 (27.2) 30 (37.0) 29 (35.8) 4.71 0.581
1 type 204 (29.6) 70 (34.3) 65 (31.9) 69 (33.8)
2 types 203 (29.5) 73 (36.0) 59 (29.1) 71 (35.0)
3 types 201 (29.2) 62 (30.8) 75 (37.3) 64 (31.8)
LLA No 156 (22.6) 50 (32.1) 47 (30.1) 59 (37.8) 1.59 0.451
Yes 533 (77.4) 177 (33.2) 182 (34.1) 174 (32.6)
APA No 612 (89.1) 194 (31.7) 202 (33.0) 216 (35.3) 6.48 0.039
Yes 75 (10.9) 32 (42.7) 27 (36.0) 16 (21.3)
  1. *Chi-square P value
  2. BP blood pressure, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglycerides, Total-C total cholesterol, AHA anti-hypertensive agent, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, APA anti-platelet agent, OHA oral hypoglycaemic agent, LDL-C low density lipoprotein- cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein- cholesterol, LLA lipid-lowering agent, RM Ringgit Malaysia, TG triglyceride, Total-C total-cholesterol, WHOQoL-BREF World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief 26 items
  3. aColumn percentage
  4. bRow percentage