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Table 2 Differences in health-related quality of life by socio-demographic and clinical characteristics (N = 629)

From: Health-related quality of life in patients with sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia

   Physical functioning Role limitations due to physical health Role limitations due to emotional problems Vitality
   Mean SD P Mean SD P Mean SD P Mean SD P
Gender Female 57.0 23.7 0.019 36.5 37.1 0.630 39.1 41.7 0.423 49.0 20.0 0.060
Male 52.3 22.5   35.0 34.5   41.8 38.5   46.0 17.4  
Older age No 55.5 23.4 0.472 36.1 35.4 0.767 39.0 39.2 0.218 48.0 18.8 0.484
  Yes 53.5 22.7   34.9 39.1   45.1 46.1   46.6 20.2  
University No 53.3 22.9 0.004 32.9 34.9 0.002* 38.1 39.7 0.020 45.9 18.3 0.001*
Yes 59.5 23.5   43.8 37.7   47.1 42.1   53.2 19.4  
Married No 56.0 23.6 0.401 38.4 34.8 0.078 42.3 39.1 0.183 49.1 18.2 0.061
Yes 54.3 23.1   33.1 37.6   37.8 42.2   46.1 19.9  
Employed No 53.4 22.5 0.002* 35.7 36.0 0.379 39.6 39.9 0.283 45.6 18.6 0.001*
Yes 60.1 23.3   38.7 37.6   43.8 41.8   52.1 19.6  
Obese No 56.3 23.9 0.086 37.6 36.8 0.309 42.2 40.3 0.766 48.2 19.5 0.188
Yes 49.7 23.4   31.5 34.9   40.3 42.8   44.2 15.6  
Fever No 55.9 23.8 0.555 44.6 36.5 0.001* 46.5 41.8 0.002* 53.7 19.2 0.001*
Yes 54.7 23.1   30.0 34.8   35.8 39.2   43.9 17.9  
Skin redness No 57.5 22.6 0.001* 40.3 36.4 0.001* 42.7 40.6 0.040 50.3 19.3 0.001*
Yes 50.5 23.6   27.1 34.1   35.3 40.3   42.9 17.5  
Swelling No 59.2 22.9 0.001* 41.0 36.9 0.001* 44.8 41.5 0.002* 52.1 20.0 0.001*
Yes 51.2 22.9   29.7 34.1   34.7 39.0   42.9 16.9  
History of blood transfusion No 61.7 25.1 0.003* 47.9 37.1 0.001* 50.2 41.5 0.007 53.3 21.1 0.002*
Yes 53.7 22.8   33.6 35.4   37.9 40.0   46.6 18.5  
Family history of anemia No 53.3 19.6 0.547 38.5 37.5 0.623 44.2 41.1 0.480 51.7 17.5 0.102
Yes 55.4 23.5   35.9 36.1   40.1 40.5   47.2 19.1  
Family support No 57.7 21.3 0.424 35.9 40.0 0.983 45.2 47.2 0.469 46.7 22.2 0.659
Yes 54.8 23.6   35.8 35.9   39.9 40.0   48.0 18.7  
Other Chronic disease No 56.0 23.2 0.032 37.6 36.2 0.034 41.4 40.7 0.242 49.0 19.3 0.002*
Yes 50.4 22.7   29.1 34.6   36.1 39.3   42.4 17.2  
Regular exercise No 54.1 22.6 0.134 34.8 36.4 0.261 40.3 41.0 0.694 44.7 18.6 0.001*
Yes 57.3 24.6   38.3 35.1   38.9 39.4   53.5 18.5  
Spleen removed No 55.1 23.0 0.877 34.7 35.5 0.088 39.5 40.5 0.451 47.7 19.1 0.931
Yes 54.7 24.9   41.3 38.3   42.8 40.8   47.9 18.8  
  1. *The factor is significant using Bonferroni correction cut-off at α/n = 0.05/15 = 0.003