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Table 1 Generic preference based and non-preference based instruments

From: A systematic review of instruments for measuring outcomes in economic evaluation within aged care

Instrument Dimensions Levels Valuation Source of preference weights
Generic preference based instruments
EuroQol - 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D)a Mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression [97] 3–5 TTO and VAS Adult general population samples from a number of countries including Australia, UK, USA, Spain, Netherlands, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Thailand and Zimbabwe
Health Utilities Index Mark2 (HUI2) Sensation, mobility, emotion, cognition, self-care, pain and fertility [98] 3–5 VAS and SG Canada (age groups 5–37, 12–16, 8–16), USA (18–89), Australia (15+), UK (general population) and Uruguay (8–17 age group)
Health Utilities Index Mark3 (HUI3) Vision, hearing, speech, ambulation, dexterity, emotion, cognition and pain [98] 5–6 VAS
Short Form 6 Dimensions (SF-6D) Physical functioning, role limitation, social functioning, pain, mental health and vitality [99] 4–6 SG Adult general population samples from UK, Japan, Hong Kong, Australia, Brazil
Assessment of Quality of Life instrument (AQOL)b Independent living, happiness, mental health, coping, relationships, self-worth, pain and senses [100] 4–6 TTO Australia (adult general population sample)
Quality of Wellbeing scale (QWB) Mobility, physical activity and social activity [101] Multi-level VAS USA (adult general population sample)
15-Dimensions (15D) Health-mobility, vision, hearing, breathing, sleeping, eating, speech, elimination, usual activities, mental function, discomfort and symptoms, depression, distress, vitality and sexual activity [102] 4–5 VAS Finland (adult general population sample)
Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT)c Personal cleanliness and comfort, Accommodation cleanliness and comfort, Food and drink, Safety, Social participation and involvement, Occupation, Control over daily life and Dignity [19, 20] 3 BWS and TTO UK (adult general population sample)
Generic non-preference based instruments
Short Form 36 (SF-36) 8 attributes; physical functioning (10 items), Role - physical (4 items), Bodily pain (2 items), General health (5 items), Vitality (4 items), Social functioning (2 items), Role - emotional (3 items) and Mental health (5 items) [103] 2–6 N/A N/A
Short Form 12 (SF-12) Physical functioning (2 items), role limitations (2 items), bodily pain (1 item), general health perceptions (1 item), vitality (1 item), social functioning (1 item), role limitations because of emotional problems (2 items), general mental health or psychological distress and psychological well-being (2 items) [103] 3-6 N/A N/A
World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief instrument (WHOQoL-Bref) Physical characteristics, Psychological aspects, Social relationships and Environmental circumstances [104] 6 N/A N/A
Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) Health; energy, pain, emotional reactions, sleep, social isolation, and physical mobility and General life; occupation, housework, social life, family life, sexual function, hobbies and holidays [105] 2 N/A N/A
  1. aA new 5 level version of the EQ-5D was launched in January 2014 [106]
  2. bFour instruments based on the number of dimensions: AQOL-4D, -6D, -7D and -8D [100]
  3. cOther versions of ASCOT are SCT4 (a four-level self-report version for use in community settings), INT4 (a four-level interview version used in community settings) and the CH3 (a three-level rating schedule based on observation and interviews used in communal living settings) [20]