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Table 3 Pooled fixed effects (correlations) by year of publication, study design, platform, time interval between administrations, age, sample size and publication type for the 435 available correlations and 61 correlations averaged over each study/platform

From: Equivalence of electronic and paper administration of patient-reported outcome measures: a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies conducted between 2007 and 2013

Study characteristic N = 61 N = 435
N Correlation (95 % CI) N Correlation (95 % CI)
Year of publication
 2007 12 0.854 (0.839–0.867) 128 0.835 (0.830–0.840)
 2008–2010 17 0.879 (0.868–0.890) 98 0.873 (0.869–0.877)
 2011 15 0.876 (0.864–0.888) 128 0.891 (0.886–0.896)
 2012–2013 17 0.895 (0.886–0.904) 81 0.877 (0.873–0.882)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
 2007–2010 29 0.868 (0.859–0.876) 226 0.852 (0.849–0.856)
 2011–2013 32 0.888 (0.881–0.895) 209 0.883 (0.880–0.886)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
Study design
 Randomized cross over 44 0.884 (0.878–0.889) 287 0.876 (0.874–0.879)
 Non–randomised cross over 3 0.825 (0.775–0.865) 22 0.825 (0.807–0.841)
 Within–patient study 14 0.858 (0.842–0.873) 126 0.828 (0.822–0.833)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
 Randomiseda 45 0.884 (0.878–0.889) 293 0.876 (0.874–0.879)
 Not randomised 16 0.853 (0.837–0.867) 142 0.826 (0.820–0.831)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
Platform
 Paper vs IVRS 8 0.845 (0.824–0.864) 54 0.844 (0.836–0.850)
 Paper vs PDA 10 0.851 (0.830–0.859) 69 0.851 (0.844–0.859)
 Paper vs Web/PC 34 0.886 (0.879–0.893) 197 0.863 (0.859–0.866)
 Paper vs Tablet/touch screen 7 0.890 (0.876–0.902) 91 0.877 (0.872–0.881)
 Web/PC vs IVRS 1 0.880 (0.841–0.910) 2 0.917 (0.898–0.932)
 Tablet/touch vs Web/PC 1 0.899 (0.837–0.938) 22 0.917 (0.908–0.926)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
Time interval
 0 (<1 day) 22 0.901 (0.892–0.909) 223 0.890 (0.887–0.893)
 1 (1–5 days) 13 0.891 (0.882–0.900) 83 0.877 (0.874–0.881)
 2 (6–14 days) 19 0.852 (0.840–0.864) 91 0.813 (0.805–0.819)
 3 (15+ days) 7 0.820 (0.791–0.845) 38 0.779 (0.767–0.791)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
 0 (<1 day) 22 0.901 (0.892–0.909) 223 0.890 (0.887–0.893)
 1 (1–9 days) 26 0.881 (0.873–0.888) 148 0.862 (0.859–0.866)
 2 (10+ days) 13 0.819 (0.799–0.837) 64 0.790 (0.781–0.798)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
Mean age of participantsb
 <28 years 12 0.794 (0.772–0.814) 80 0.789 (0.781–0.796)
 28–46.9 years 15 0.896 (0.888–0.904) 98 0.875 (0.871–0.878)
 47–55.9 years 12 0.889 (0.878–0.900) 103 0.877 (0.873–0.881)
 56+ years 18 0.880 (0.868–0.891) 141 0.886 (0.881–0.891)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
Sample size
 ≤56 20 0.881 (0.863–0.896) 126 0.885 (0.878–0.891)
 57–116 21 0.881 (0.870–0.891) 184 0.866 (0.862–0.870)
 >116 20 0.887 (0.870–0.884) 125 0.861 (0.858–0.864)
   p = 0.817   p < 0.001
Publication type
 Abstract/poster 10 0.898 (0.889–0.906) 26 0.905 (0.900–0.910)
 Full text publication 51 0.870 (0.864–0.877) 409 0.859 (0.856–0.861)
   p < 0.001   p < 0.001
  1. aPatients in 1 within–patient study [20] were randomly assigned to complete 2 versions of 1 of 4 instruments
  2. bFour studies [7, 23, 48, 71] did not provide information on the age of their participants