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Table 2 Pooled fixed effects (standardised mean differences) by year of publication, study design, platform, time interval between administrations, age, sample size and publication type for the 307 available standardised mean differences

From: Equivalence of electronic and paper administration of patient-reported outcome measures: a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies conducted between 2007 and 2013

Study characteristic N = 307
N Mean difference (95 % CI)
Year of publication
 2007 98 0.051 (0.040–0.062)
 2008–2010 76 0.022 (0.011–0.033)
 2011 69 0.031 (0.020–0.041)
 2012–2013 64 0.047 (0.035–0.058)
   p < 0.001
 2007–2010 174 0.036 (0.028–0.043)
2011–2013 133 0.038 (0.030–0.045)
   p = 0.709
Study design
 Randomized cross over 232 0.030 (0.023–0.036)
 Non–randomised crossover 12 0.033 (−0.003–0.068)
 Within–patient study 40 0.099 (0.077–0.122)
 Parallel group study 23 0.046 (0.033–0.060)
   p < 0.001
 Randomiseda 256 0.034 (0.028–0.040)
 Not randomised 51 0.065 (0.046–0.084)
   p = 0.002
Platform
 Paper vs IVRS 40 0.053 (0.038–0.069)
 Paper vs PDA 60 0.106 (0.070–0.142)
 Paper vs Web/PC 152 0.038 (0.031–0.045)
 Paper vs Tablet/touch screen 51 0.020 (0.009–0.031)
 Tablet/touch vs Web/PC 4 0.044 (−0.113–0.221)
   p < 0.001
Time interval
 0 (<1 day) 159 0.036 (0.028–0.044)
 1 (1–5 days) 61 0.034 (0.024–0.044)
 2 (6–14 days) 50 0.036 (0.022–0.051)
 3 (15+ days) 37 0.051 (0.032–0.069)
   p = 0.460
 0 (<1 day) 159 0.036 (0.028–0.044)
 1 (1–9 days) 85 0.033 (0.025–0.041)
 2 (10+ days) 63 0.055 (0.038–0.072)
   p = 0.077
Mean age of participantsb
 <28 years 86 0.064 (0.051–0.077)
 28–46.9 years 37 0.019 (0.009–0.029)
 47–55.9 years 51 0.028 (0.017–0.039)
 56+ years 125 0.049 (0.038–0.061)
   p < 0.001
Sample size
 ≤56 114 0.071 (0.055–0.087)
 57–116 94 0.024 (0.014–0.035)
 >116 99 0.036 (0.029–0.043)
   p < 0.001
Publication type
 Abstract/poster 3 0.071 (−0.016–0.158)
 Full text publication 304 0.037 (0.031–0.042)
   p = 0.436
  1. aPatients in 1 within–patient study [20] were randomly assigned to complete 2 versions of 1 of 4 instruments
  2. bFour studies [7, 23, 48, 71] did not provide information on the age of their participants