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Table 1 Quality of life (OPQoL-Brief, EQ-5D-3 L and ASCOT) values for selected patient characteristics

From: An empirical comparison of the OPQoL-Brief, EQ-5D-3 L and ASCOT in a community dwelling population of older people

Characteristics N (%) OPQoL-Brief Mean (SD) OPQoL-Brief Median (IQR) EQ-5D-3 L Mean (SD) EQ-5D-3 L Median (IQR) ASCOT Mean (SD) ASCOT Median (IQR)
Whole sample (absolute scores) 87 (100 %) 53.931 (6.685) 53.000 (51.000–60.000) 0.515 (0.287) 0.590 (0.208–0.691) 0.852 (0.141) 0.899 (0.770–0.965)
Whole sample (Z scores)a 87 (100 %) −0.000 (1.000) −0.205 (−0.502–0.924) −0.012 (0.990) −0.008(−1.400–0.510) −0.016 (0.993) 0.263 (−0.715–0.827)
Age groupb        
65–74 15 (17 %) 52.400 (8.025) 52.000 (50.000–58.000) 0.349 (0.285) 0.487 (0.088–0.587) 0.768 (0.191) 0.776 (0.595–0.949)
75–84 41 (47 %) 53.073 (6.397) 52.000 (49.000−58.000) 0.527 (0.272) 0.620 (0.516−0.691) 0.862 (0.129) 0.905 (0.800−0.966)
≥85 31 (36 %) 55.806 (6.140) 56.000 (52.000−61.000) 0.581 (0.284) 0.590 (0.516−0.760) 0.881 (0.116) 0.908 (0.852−0.966)
P value    0.127   0.029   0.156
Genderb        
Female 57 (66 %) 53.035 (6.840) 52.000 (50.000−59.000) 0.460 (0.286) 0.587 (0.159−0.691) 0.844 (0.149) 0.890 (0.770−0.957)
Male 19 (22 %) 56.105 (5.206) 56.000 (52.000−60.000) 0.677 (0.201) 0.620 (0.587−0.796) 0.871 (0.132) 0.905 (0.829−0.975)
Missing 11 (13 %) 54.818 (7.692) 56.000 (48.000−62.000) 0.522 (0.333) 0.587 (0.193−0.760) 0.864 (0.122) 0.908 (0.769−0.957)
P value    0.081   0.013   0.464
Living arrangementsb        
Living alone 51 (59 %) 54.941 (6.519) 56.000 (51.000−60.000) 0.532 (0.274) 0.620 (0.208−0.691) 0.858 (0.139) 0.904 (0.780−0.966)
Living with others 24 (28 %) 51.500 (6.311) 52.000 (48.500−56.000) 0.492 (0.299) 0.587 (0.516−0.665) 0.831 (0.159) 0.886 (0.737−0.953)
Other living arrangements 12 (14 %) 54.500 (7.416) 54.500 (49.500−61.000) 0.491 (0.335) 0.587 (0.176−0.743) 0.870 (0.118) 0.918 (0.794−0.953)
P value    0.028   0.445   0.426
Place of birthb        
Australia 49 (56 %) 53.000 (6.773) 53.000 (50.000−59.000) 0.523 (0.263) 0.620 (0.516−0.691) 0.840 (0.146) 0.877 (0.770−0.957)
UK 15 (17 %) 54.667 (5.960) 56.000 (51.000−60.000) 0.493 (0.325) 0.620 (0.159−0.691) 0.874 (0.133) 0.950 (0.800−0.966)
Other 11 (13 %) 56.455 (6.440) 56.000 (52.000−64.000) 0.538 (0.318) 0.587 (0.159−0.760) 0.861 (0.163) 0.950 (0.706−0.982)
Missing 12 (14 %) 54.500 (7.416) 54.500 (49.500−61.000) 0.491 (0.335) 0.587 (0.176−0.743) 0.870 (0.118) 0.918 (0.794−0.953)
P value    0.430   0.954   0.533
Education Levelb        
Up to secondary school 44 (51 %) 53.523 (5.963) 52.000 (50.500−59.000) 0.496 (0.268) 0.587 (0.362−0.691) 0.859 (0.140) 0.902 (0.788−0.961)
Beyond secondary school 29 (33 %) 54.172 (7.691) 56.000 (51.000−59.000) 0.537 (0.303) 0.620 (0.487−0.710) 0.828 (0.154) 0.853 (0.706−0.965)
Missing 14 (16 %) 54.714 (7.021) 54.500 (51.000−60.000) 0.531 (0.325) 0.588 (0.193−0.760) 0.883 (0.114) 0.931 (0.820−0.957)
P value    0.406   0.328   0.398
Has Informal Carerb        
Yes 49 (56 %) 53.776 (7.363) 54.000 (49.000−60.000) 0.507 (0.308) 0.620 (0.159−0.691) 0.824 (0.165) 0.870 (0.706−0.966)
No 26 (30 %) 53.962 (5.024) 52.500 (51.000−58.000) 0.543 (0.225) 0.604 (0.516−0.691) 0.899 (0.080) 0.906 (0.852−0.965)
Missing 12 (14 %) 54.500 (7.416) 54.500 (49.500−61.000) 0.491 (0.335) 0.587 (0.176−0.743) 0.870 (0.118) 0.918 (0.794−0.953)
P value    0.802   0.898   0.154
General healthb        
Poor 6 (7 %) 46.333 (10.40) 44.500 (42.000−52.000) 0.102 (0.258) 0.059 (−0.003−0.088) 0.711 (0.227) 0.715 (0.492−0.916)
Fair 23 (26 %) 50.565 (6.287) 51.000 (47.000−56.000) 0.361 (0.299) 0.516 (0.082−0.620) 0.804 (0.150) 0.826 (0.672−0.949)
Good 44 (51 %) 54.659 (4.927) 53.000 (51.000−58.000) 0.604 (0.184) 0.620 (0.586−0.701) 0.872 (0.118) 0.906 (0.821−0.957)
Very good or excellent 14 (16 %) 60.429 (3.589) 61.000 (59.000−62.000) 0.668 (0.286) 0.725 (0.552−0.848) 0.932 (0.084) 0.961 (0.905−0.982)
P value    <0.001   <0.001   0.009
  1. OPQoL-Brief Older People’s Quality of Life brief questionnaire, EQ-5D-3 L EuroQoL EQ-5D 3 Level instrument and ASCOT Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit instrument, IQR Interquartile range, SD Standard deviation
  2. aEQ-5D-3 L and ASCOT utility scores and OPQoL summary scores were first power transformed to follow a normal distribution (using the square transformation) before converting them into Z scores
  3. bBased on discussions within the team and evidence from the literature, a positive relationship was hypothesised between quality of life (as measured by the OPQol-Brief, EQ-5D-3 L and ASCOT) and being younger [55, 7073], being male [55, 73], living alone [74], having been born in Australia, a higher educational level [73, 75], having informal carer support [74] and higher self-reported general health [71]