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Table 6 Comparison of change in CD4 count and QoL among 573 patients not receiving ART at the Mulago HIV clinic in Uganda between April 2012 and December 2013

From: Relationship between CD4 count and quality of life over time among HIV patients in Uganda: a cohort study

Outcome QoL score PHS MHS GPGI
Predictor variable β coefficient/Odds Ratio (95 % CI) Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
Change in CD4 count −0.0003 (−0.0015 to 0.0010) −0.0003 (−0.0011 to 0.0008) −0.0001 (−0.0012 to 0.0009) 0.0000 (−0.0010 to 0.0011) 0.9991 (0.9983 to 0.9998) 0.9990 (0.9982 to 0.9997)
SE = 0.0006 SE = 0.0006 SE = 0.0005 SE = 0.0005 SE = 0.0004 SE = 0.0004
Gender
 Male Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Female −0.56 (−1.11 to −0.14) −0.71 (−1.33 to −0.09) −0.13 (−0.58 to 0.33) 0.07 (−0.46 to 0.61) 1.13 (0.84 to 1.52) 1.26 (0.89 to 1.77)
Age in years
 <30 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 30−39 −0.21 (−0.73 to 0.32) −0.32 (−0.86 to 0.22) 0.39 (−0.05 to 0.83) 0.38 (−0.08 to 0.84) 0.78 (0.58 to 1.05) 0.79 (0.58 to 1.09)
 ≥40 −1.16 (−1.77 to −0.55) −1.35 (−2.00 to −0.70) 0.29 (−0.22 to 0.81) 0.17 (−0.39 to 0.73) 0.62 (0.45 to 0.87) 0.62 (0.43 to 0.89)
Education level
 ≤Primary Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Secondary 0.74 (0.24 to 1.23) 0.66 (0.16 to 1.15) 0.12 (−0.29 to 0.54) 0.11 (−0.02 to 0.53) 1.51 (1.15 to 1.97) 1.26 (0.96 to 1.66)
 Apprenticeship 0.96 (0.04 to 1.87) 0.46 (−0.48 to 1.40) −0.03 (−0.80 to 0.73) −0.03 (−0.83 to 0.78) 1.75 (1.03 to 2.98) 1.50 (0.86 to 2.63)
 Tertiary 1.33 (−0.59 to 3.25 0.82 (−1.03 to 2.67) −0.11 (−1.73 to 1.50) 0.06 (−1.54 to 1.65) 11.85 (1.73 to 80.95) 10.11 (1.52 to 67.14)
Marital status
 Currently married Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Divorced/separated 0.55 (−0.52 to 0.63) 0.22 (−0.36 to 0.81) 0.21 (−0.27 to 0.69) 0.22 (−0.28 to 0.72) 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12) 0.84 (0.61 to 1.15)
Single −0.03 (−1.07 to 1.02) −0.51 (−1.58 to 0.57) −0.31 (−1.18 to 0.55) −0.35 (−1.27 to 0.57) 1.07 (0.56 to 2.05) 0.82 (0.43 to 1.56)
Widowed −0.26 (−1.05 to 0.53) 0.45 (−0.36 to 1.27) −0.02 (−0.68 to 0.63) 0.11 (−0.60 to 0.81) 0.78 (0.52 to 1.17) 0.86 (0.54 to 1.38)
Alcohol consumption
 Yes Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 No −0.23 (−0.73 to 0.28) −0.02 (−0.52 to 0.49) 0.01 (−0.41 to 0.43) 0.10 (0.34 to 0.53) 0.93 (0.71 to 1.22) 0.94 (0.70 to 1.26)
Income per month in USD
 <20 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 20−60 0.36 (−0.24 to 095) 0.41 (−0.30 to 1.11) −0.22 (−0.72 to 0.27) −0.66 (−1.27 to −0.06) 1.28 (0.93 to 1.77) 1.18 (0.82 to 1.70)
 >60 0.79 (0.23 to 1.35) 0.54 (−0.16 to 1.25) −0.06 (−0.53 to 0.40) −0.43 (−1.03 to 0.18) 1.60 (1.18 to 2.17) 1.33 (0.91 to 1.95)
Smoking status
 Yes Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 No 0.64 (−0.48 to 1.75) 0.27 (−0.88 to 1.42) −0.72 (−1.64 to 0.20) −0.87 (−1.85 to 0.12) 2.14 (1.19 to 3.84) 1.62 (0.91 to 2.89)
Depression score No depression
 (<16) Ref Ref - - Ref Ref
 Probable depression (≥16) −1.07 (−1.46 to −0.67) −1.01 (−1.41 to −0.60)    0.41 (0.33 to 0.52) 0.43 (0.33 to 0.55)
Social support
 Yes, family Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes, other 0.063 (−0.53 to 0.66) 0.003 (−0.60 to 0.60) 0.28 (−0.21 to 0.77) 0.41 (−0.11 to 0.92) 0.91 (0.67 to 1.24) 0.96 (0.69 to 1.33)
None −0.01 (−1.12 to 1.10) −0.01 (−1.10 to 1.07) 0.70 (−0.21 to 1.61) 0.65 (−0.28 to 1.58) 1.10 (0.62 to 1.95) 1.20 (0.65 to 2.20)
Opportunistic infection
 Yes Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 No 0.41 (−0.15 to 0.97) 0.22 (−0.36 to 0.79) 0.59 (0.12 to 1.06) 0.66 (0.17 to 1.16) 1.06 (0.78 to 1.45) 1.02 (0.73 to 1.42)
WHO stage
 Stages I and II Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Stages III and IV −0.63 (−1.30 to 0.04) −0.51 (−1.19 to 0.17) 0.38 (−0.94 to 0.18) −0.19 (−0.77 to 0.40) 0.86 (0.59 to 1.25) 1.00 (0.68 to 1.45)
Religion
 Christian Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Muslim −0.74 (−1.39 to −0.09) −0.30 (−0.96 to 0.37) 0.27 (−0.27 to 0.81) 0.24 (−0.33 to 0.82) 1.03 (0.71 to 1.50) 1.19 (0.80
to 1.78)
 Other −0.55 (−2.42 to 1.31) −0.57 (−2.35 to 1.21) 1.13 (−0.42 to 2.68) 1.40 (−0.13 to 2.94) 1.11 (0.45 to 2.78) 0.82 (0.28 to 2.46)
Employment status
 Yes Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 No −0.28 (−0.87 to 0.31) 0.26 (−0.48 to 1.00) −0.23 (−0.72 to 0.26) −0.39 (−1.02 to 0.25) 0.70 (0.51 to 0.97) 0.73 (0.49 to 1.09)
  1. Abbreviations: 95 % CI, 95 % confidence interval; SE, standard error