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Table 5 Comparison of change in CD4 count and QoL among 586 patients receiving ART at the Mulago HIV clinic in Uganda between April 2012 and December 2013

From: Relationship between CD4 count and quality of life over time among HIV patients in Uganda: a cohort study

Outcome QoL score PHS MHS GPGI
Predictor variable β coefficient (95 % CI)/ odds ratio (95 % CI) Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
Change in CD4 count 0.0001 (−0.0013 to 0.0016) 0.0001 (−0.0014 to 0.0015) 0.0004 (−0.0009 to 0.0018) 0.0009 (−0.0005 to 0.0023) 0.9999 (0.9990 to 1.0001) 0.9999 (0.9991 to 1.0008)
SE = 0.0007 SE = 0.0007 SE = 0.0007 SE = 0.0007 SE = 0.0004 SE = 0.0004
Baseline CD4 count (cells/μL)
 <100 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 101−350 0.82 (0.21 to 1.44) 0.64 (0.02 to 1.25) 0.12 (−0.44 to 0.68) −0.02 (−0.61 to 0.57) 0.89 (0.63 to 1.24) 0.79 (0.54 to 1.14)
 >350 0.90 (0.03 to 1.76) 0.62 (−0.23 to 1.47) 0.32 (−0.47 to 1.11) 0.26 (−0.56 to 1.08) 0.81 (0.51 to 1.30) 0.68 (0.41 to 1.13)
Gender
 Male Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Female −0.30 (−0.78 to 0.18) 0.02 (−0.50 to 0.54) −0.87 (−1.30 to −0.43) −0.78 (−1.28 to −0.29) 0.83 (0.64 to 1.07) 1.14 (0.84 to 1.56)
Age in years
 <30 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 30−39 −0.46 (−0.98 to 0.053) −0.44 (−0.95 to 0.07) 0.46 (−0.01 to 0.93) 0.27 (−0.23 to 0.76) 0.92 (0.70 to 1.20) 0.91 (0.67 to 1.22)
 ≥40 −0.56 (−1.17 to 0.05) 0.50 (−1.12 to 0.11) 0.15 (−0.40 to 0.71) 0.10 (−0.49 to 0.69) 0.93 (0.67 to 1.30) 0.95 (0.66 to 1.38)
Education level
 ≤Primary Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Secondary 0.69 (0.21 to 1.17) 0.44 (−0.03 to 0.92) −0.19 (−0.63 to 0.25) −0.11 (−0.56 to 0.35) 1.27 (0.98 to 1.65) 1.12 (0.84 to 1.48)
 Apprenticeship 1.74 (0.81 to 2.66) 0.96 (0.06 to 1.86) 0.38 (−0.47 to 1.23) 0.23 (−0.63 to 1.09) 1.17 (0.74 to 1.84) 0.84 (0.53 to 1.39)
 Tertiary 2.31 (0.94 to 3.68) 1.72 (0.28 to 3.15) −1.05 (−2.31 to 0.21) −1.86 (−3.23 to −0.48) 3.72 (1.17 to 11.87) 3.65 (1.06 to 12.56)
Marital status
 Currently married Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Divorced/separated −0.15 (−0.70 to 0.40) 0.15 (−0.40 to 0.70) −0.60 (−1.10 to −0.10) −0.42 (−0.95 to 0.10) 0.73 (0.54 to 0.97) 0.73 (0.54 to 0.99)
 Single 0.53 (−0.34 to 1.39) 0.58 (−0.31 to 1.46) −0.68 (−1.46 to 0.10) −0.52 (−1.37 to 0.33) 0.92 (0.58 to 1.44) 0.85 (0.51 to 1.42)
 Widowed −0.59 (−1.45 to 0.27) −0.41 (−1.27 to 0.46) −0.73 (−1.51 to 0.05) −0.49 (−1.31 to 0.33) 0.63 (0.40 to 0.99) 0.73 (0.45 to 1.18)
Alcohol consumption
 Yes Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 No −0.15 (−0.68 to 0.39) 0.02 (−0.51 to 0.55) −0.20 (−0.69 to 0.28) −0.27 (−0.77 to 0.24) 1.49 (1.13 to 1.96) 1.56 (1.14 to 2.14)
Income per month in USD
 <20 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 20−60 −0.22 (−0.82 to 0.37) −0.18 (−0.91 to 0.55) −0.12 (−0.67 to 0.43) −0.47 (−1.17 to 0.23) 1.00 (0.73 to 1.37) 0.99 (0.65 to 1.50)
 >60 0.77 (0.24 to 1.31) 0.37 (−0.33 to 1.06) 0.27 (−0.23 to 0.76) −0.26 (−0.93 to 0.41) 1.59 (1.20 to 2.12) 1.43 (0.95 to 2.14)
Smoking status
 Yes Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 No −0.40 (−1.61 to 0.80) −0.27 (−1.46 to 0.92) 0.43 (−0.66 to 1.52) 0.78 (−0.35 to 1.92) 1.33 (0.73 to 2.42) 1.04 (0.50 to 2.18)
Social support
 Yes, family Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes, other 0.52 (−0.14 to 1.19) 0.49 (−0.15 to 1.14) −0.19 (−0.80 to 0.41) −0.10 (−0.72 to 0.51) 0.83 (0.60 to 1.15) 0.98 (0.69 to 1.39)
 None −0.37 (−1.72 to 0.97) −0.44 (−1.76 to 0.87) −1.27 (−2.49 to −0.04) −1.15 (−2.41 to 0.10) 0.74 (0.41 to 1.34) 0.84 (0.44 to 1.63)
Depression score No depression
 (<16) Ref Ref - - Ref Ref
 Probable depression (≥16) −1.95 (−2.35 to −1.55 −1.71 (−2.12 to −1.31)    0.37 (0.30 to 0.45) 0.39 (0.31 to 0.49)
Opportunistic infection
 Yes Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 No 0.46 (−0.03 to 0.96) 0.07 (−0.42 to 0.56) 0.30 (−0.15 to 0.75) 0.13 (−0.34 to 0.59) 1.33 (1.03 to 1.72) 1.24 (0.94 to 1.64)
WHO stage
 Stages I and II Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Stages III and IV −1.09 (−1.66 to −0.52) −0.76 (−1.33 to −1.19) −0.34 (−0.86 to 0.19) −0.24 (−0.78 to 0.31) 0.76 (0.57 to 1.02) 0.78 (0.57 to 1.07)
Religion
 Christian Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Muslim −0.41 (−1.02 to 0.20) −0.17 (−0.77 to 0.43) 0.48 (−0.08 to 1.03) 0.55 (−0.02 to 1.13) 1.10 (0.79 to 1.53) 1.11 (0.78 to 1.59)
 Other 0.03 (−1.02 to 0.20) −0.20 (−1.79 to 1.38) −0.70 (−2.21 to 0.81) −0.71 (−2.22 to 0.81) 0.89 (0.41 to 1.90) 0.76 (0.36 to 1.59)
Employment status
 Yes Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 No −0.31 (−0.90 to 0.28) −0.12 (−0.90 to 0.65) −0.27 (−0.81 to 0.26) −0.39 (−1.13 to 0.35) 0.78 (0.58 to 1.05) 0.97 (0.63 to 1.51)
  1. Abbreviations: 95 % CI, 95 % confidence interval; SE, standard error