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Table 4 Means and ceiling effects of measures by smoking group and country

From: Evaluation of smoking-specific and generic quality of life measures in current and former smokers in Germany and the United States

  German sample US sample
  Current smokers (N = 125) Former smokers (N = 54) Ever smokers (N = 179) Current smokers (N = 149) Former smokers (N = 110) Ever smokers (N = 259)
Measurea Mean (SD) % Best Mean (SD) % Best Mean (SD) % Best Mean (SD) % Best Mean (SD) % Best Mean (SD) % Best
Smoking-Specific             
Symptoms (−) 58.2 (8.6) 0.0 48.8 (6.6) 5.6 55.4 (9.1) 1.7 55.1(10.4) 4.0 45.3(5.4) 10.9 50.9 (9.9) 6.9
Impact (−) 50.3 (6.4) 40.8 45.6 (3.0) 94.4 48.9 (6.0) 57.0 54.0 (9.8) 26.8 45.8 (3.3) 92.7 50.5 (8.8) 54.8
SF-36 Generic             
PCS (+) 57.1 (4.3) -- 56.5 (4.2) -- 56.9 (4.3) -- 52.5 (7.6) -- 55.0 (7.1) -- 53.6 (7.5) --
MCS (+) 54.6 (5.6) -- 53.3 (5.8) -- 54.2 (5.7) -- 47.9 (11.6) -- 50.0 (9.8) -- 48.8 (10.9) --
  1. aNegative (−) higher score indicates worse symptoms and quality of life; positive (+) indicates better health and quality of life