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Table 1 Descriptions of smoking-specific and generic measures and biomarkers

From: Evaluation of smoking-specific and generic quality of life measures in current and former smokers in Germany and the United States

QOL Measurea Number of items Scoring directionb Worst possible score Best possible score
Smoking Symptoms 8 Report of eight symptoms (listed in text) all of the time. None of the 8 smoking-specific symptoms were reported.
Smoking Impact 7 Extreme limitations in everyday activities and quality of life attributed to smoking. No impact on everyday activities or quality of life attributed to smoking.
SF-36 Generic     
Physical Component Summary (PCS) 35 + Limitations in self-care, physical, social, and role activities, severe bodily pain, frequent tiredness, health rated “Poor.” No physical limitations, pain, disabilities or decrements in well-being, high energy level, health rated “Excellent.”
Mental Component Summary (MCS) 35 + Frequent psychological distress, social and role disability due to emotional problems. Frequent positive affect, absence of psychological distress and limitations in usual social/role activities due to emotional problems.
Biomarker Test Typec Constituent Non-Tobacco Sources
4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) Urine BoE 4-ABP Hair dyes, fried food
2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) Urine BoE Acrylonitrile Workplace
4-aminobiphenyl hemoglobin adduct (4-ABP-Hb) Blood BoED 4-ABP Hair dyes, fried food
2-cyanoethylvaline (CEVal) Blood BoED Acrylonitrile Workplace
  1. aNote: all survey items asked about the past 4 weeks except for Smoking Symptoms which asked for current status
  2. bNegative (−) higher score indicates worse symptoms and quality of life; positive (+) indicates better health and quality of life
  3. cBoE = Biomarker of exposure; BoED = Biomarker of effective dose