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Table 4 The relationship between direct medical costs for COPD care and quality of life of patients

From: Quality of life and its association with direct medical costs for COPD in urban China

Utilities of EQ5D Annual direct medical cost cOR (95% CI) p value aOR (95% CI)* p value*
Top 25% Lower 75%
Lower 75% 139 305 3.28 <0.001 2.10 0.003
(2.09,5.13) (1.29,3.44)
Top 25% 27 194 1.00 - 1.00 -
  1. *Variables included in the logistic regression model: study site, age, gender, household income, severity and duration of COPD, having medical insurance(s) and presence of comorbidities.
  2. Abbreviations: aOR adjusted odds ratio, cOR crude odds ratio, CI confidence interval, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.