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Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
The relationship between direct medical costs for COPD care and quality of life of patients
Quality of life and its association with direct medical costs for COPD in urban China
Utilities of EQ5D
Annual direct medical cost
cOR (95% CI)
aOR (95% CI)*
*Variables included in the logistic regression model: study site, age, gender, household income, severity and duration of COPD, having medical insurance(s) and presence of comorbidities.
adjusted odds ratio,
crude odds ratio,
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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