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Table 4 The results of the GLM repeated measures and clinical changes over time according to the adjusted mean differences, for EORTC QLQ-C30, SOC, SPS, and RCOPE (+) and RCOPE (−) scale scores in the breast cancer group (n = 162) compared to the controls (n = 210) from baseline (T1) to the 6-month follow-up (T2)

From: Health-related quality of life and the predictive role of sense of coherence, spirituality and religious coping in a sample of Iranian women with breast cancer: a prospective study with comparative design

Variables GLM results
interaction effect a
Statistical changes over time
(p value)
Adjusted mean differences between groups over time b
(Clinical changes)
  Group * Time T1 → T2 T1 → T2
EORTCQLQ-C30:    
Global quality of life 12.5 .000 +8.2
Functional scales:    
Physical 118.5 .000 - 16.2
Role 30.1 .000 - 11.0
Emotional 9.8 .002 +8.5
Cognitive 7.9 .005 - 6.0
Social 8.4 .004 - 7.0
Symptom scales:    
Fatigue 22.7 .000 +12.0
Nausea/vomiting 4.7 .030 +3.4
Pain 13.3 .000 +8.6
Dyspnea 0.6 .419 +1.7
Insomnia 1.7 .184 +4.0
Appetite loss 0.1 .707 - 1.0
Constipation 8.6 .004 +7.5
Diarrhea 0.4 .545 - 1.1
Financial difficulties 51.7 .000 +21.7
Sense of Coherence 17.3 .000 - 6.5
Spiritual Perspective Scale 31.0 .000 - 6.6
Religious Coping (+) 9.8 .002 - 6.5
Religious Coping (−) 3.5 .060 +4.3
  1. In the last column plus and minus signs represent a higher or lower scoring on the respective variable.
  2. Higher scoring (+) for symptom scales and RCOPE (−) scale shows impairment over time.
  3. aGLM repeated measures tests adjusted for the number of the comorbidities.
  4. bDifferences in adjusted mean score in the breast cancer group (T2 - T1) minus differences in adjusted mean score in the controls (T2 - T1) show clinical changes
  5. (Criterion: small 5–10, moderate 11–19, and large ≥ 20).
  6. Bold values show significant statistical and clinical changes in the breast cancer group compared to the controls over time.
  7. All scales were linearly transformed to 0–100.