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Table 1 Characteristics of all patients at inclusion stratified by Type D personality

From: Type D personality, mental distress, social support and health-related quality of life in coronary artery disease patients with heart failure: a longitudinal observational study

  All patients Type D Non Type D P value Difference between proportions, %
(n = 855) (n = 286) (n = 569)
Age, years (mean ± SD) 58.6 ± 8.8 58.6 ± 8.8 57.9 ± 9.0 0.304  
Gender, n (%)     <0.001  
     Men 633 (74.0) 182 (63.6) 451 (79.3) <0.001 15.6%
     Women 222 (26.0) 104 (36.4) 118 (20.7) 0.010  
Marital status, n (%)     0.336  
     Living with a partner 697 (81.5) 228 (79.7) 469 (82.4) 0.389 2.7%
     Living alone 158 (18.5) 58 (20.3) 100 (17.6) 0.675  
Diagnosis, n (%)     0.669  
     Angina pectoris 240 (28.1) 83 (28.9) 157 (27.5) 0.667 1.4%
     Acute myocardial infarction 506 (59.2) 169 (59.1) 337 (59.2) 0.978 0.1%
     Previous myocardial infarction 109 (12.7) 34 (11.9) 75 (13.2) 0.591 1.3%
Hypertension, n (%)     0.109  
     Grade 1 (mild) 55 (6.4) 18 (6.3) 37 (6.5) 0.911 0.2%
     Grade 2 (moderate) 549 (64.2) 194 (67.8) 355 (62.4) 0.121 5.4%
     Grade 3 (severe) 80 (9.4) 23 (8.0) 57 (10.0) 0.343 0.2%
NYHA class, n (%)     0.027  
     I 52 (6.1) 17 (5.9) 35 (6.2) 0.863 0.2%
     II 659 (77.1) 207 (72.4) 452 (79.4) 0.022 7.1%
     III 144 (16.8) 62 (21.7) 82 (14.4) 0.007 7.3%
Mental distress      
     HADS-A ≥ 8, n(%) 281 (32.9) 164 (57.3) 117 (20.6) <.001 36.8%
     HADS-D ≥ 8, n(%) 112 (13.1) 82 (28.7) 30 (5.3) <.001 23.4%
Perceived social support, mean score ± SD 6.1 ± 1.0 5.9 ± 1.1 6.2 ± 0.9 <.001  
Minnesota Living with heart failure questionnaire, mean score ± SD 31.7 ± 20.0 40.3 ± 19.6 27.3 ± 18.8 <.001  
  1. NYHA – New York Heart Association; HADS-D - Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale depression subscale; HADS-A - Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale anxiety subscale.