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Table 2 Bivariate mixed effects analyses predicting QoL in Norwegian tourists (N= 58) at 2 (T1) and 6 (T2) years post-tsunami

From: Posttraumatic growth, depression and posttraumatic stress in relation to quality of life in tsunami survivors: a longitudinal study

  Global quality of life Health-related quality of life
  T1 T2 T1 T2
  b 95% CI p b 95% CI p b 95% CI p b 95% CI p
Gender             
Male −0.04 −0.40, 0.31 .80 −0.14 −0.53, 0.24 .45 −0.07 −0.51, 0.37 .74 0.04 −0.38, 0.46 .84
Female a 0    0    0    0   
Age at time of tsunami −0.01 −0.03, 0.01 .31 0.00 −0.02, 0.03 .69 −0.01 −0.04, 0.01 .28 −0.01 −0.04, 0.01 .28
Loss of family member             
No 0.79 0.16, 1.42 .02 0.68 −0.06, 1.42 .07 0.18 −0.72, 1.08 .69 0.52 −0.31, 1.35 .21
Yes a 0    0    0    0   
Caught by waves             
No 1.02 0.28, 1.77 .009 0.75 −0.16, 1.66 .10 0.87 −0.16, 1.89 .09 0.90 −0.09, 1.88 .07
Nearly or partly 0.51 −0.09, 1.11 .09 0.30 −0.43, 1.04 .41 −0.38 −1.21, 0.45 .36 0.19 −0.61, 0.98 .63
Completely a 0    0    0    0   
Posttraumatic growth 0.03 −0.16, 0.22 .73 0.04 −0.17, 0.26 .70 0.01 −0.23, 0.25 .94 0.15 −0.07, 0.37 .18
Depression b −0.52 −0.70, −0.34 < .001 −0.56 −0.76, −0.36 < .001 −0.59 −0.83, −0.35 < .001 −0.58 −0.82, −0.34 < .001
Posttraumatic stress c −0.55 −0.73, −0.36 < .001 −0.53 −0.75, −0.30 < .001 −0.47 −0.72, −0.22 < .001 −0.42 −0.69, −0.16 .002
  1. Note: Multilevel regression analysis controlled for the effect of mutual family members. Figures are regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals in parenthesis). All predictors were measured two years post-tsunami. Posttraumatic growth, depression and posttraumatic stress were standardized before being entered into the model.
  2. aFemales, those without the loss of a family member and those who were completely caught by waves were set to have a mean of 0 in the mixed effects models.
  3. bLevel of depression as measured by the General Health Questionnaire.
  4. cLevel of posttraumatic stress as measured by the PCL.