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Table 3 HRQoL (EQ-5D, EQ-VAS, Q-LES-Q-SF)

From: Importance of remission and residual somatic symptoms in health-related quality of life among outpatients with major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study

  New MDD (N = 287) Remitted MDD (N = 235) Non-remitted MDD (N = 289) p-value Testa
EQ-5D dimensions mobility, n (%)      
No problems 246 (85.7) 219 (93.2) 237 (82.0)   
Some problems 35 (12.2) 16 (6.8) 49 (17.0)   
Severe problems 6 (2.1) 0 (0.0) 3 (1.0)   
Self-care, n (%)      
No problems 268 (93.4) 228 (97.0) 267 (92.4)   
Some problems 19 (6.6) 7 (3.0) 21 (7.3)   
Severe problems 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3)   
Usual activity, n (%)      
No problems 155 (54.0) 201 (85.5) 143 (49.5)   
Some problems 119 (41.5) 33 (14.0) 130 (45.0)   
Severe problems 13 (4.5) 1 (0.4) 16 (5.5)   
Pain/discomfort, n (%)      
No problems 98 (34.1) 153 (65.1) 96 (33.2)   
Some problems 163 (56.8) 79 (33.6) 152 (52.6)   
Severe problems 26 (9.1) 3 (1.3) 41 (14.2)   
Anxiety/depression, n (%)      
No problems 28 (9.8) 143 (60.9) 37 (12.8)   
Some problems 189 (65.9) 90 (38.3) 192 (66.4)   
Severe problems 70 (24.4) 2 (0.9) 60 (20.8)   
EQ-5D index scorec 0.58 ± 0.24 0.77 ± 0.10 0.57 ± 0.23 <0.0001b a = c < b
EQ-VAS 50.3 ± 20.6 72.5 ± 16.6 50.9 ± 20.3 <0.0001b a = c < b
Q-LES-Q-SF total scored 35.6 ± 7.8 46.5 ± 8.8 36.7 ± 7.7 <0.0001b a = c < b
Q-LES-Q-SF index scoree 0.39 ± 0.14 0.58 ± 0.16 0.41 ± 0.14 <0.0001b a = c < b
Status of concomitant medication, n (%)      
Yes 96 (33.4) 226 (96.2) 280 (96.9)   
No 191 (66.6) 9 (3.8) 9 (3.1)   
Satisfaction with medication, n (%)      
Very dissatisfied 2 (2.1) 0 (0.0) 5 (1.8)   
Dissatisfied 33 (34.4) 14 (6.2) 52 (18.6)   
Fair 32 (33.3) 52 (23.0) 106 (37.9)   
Satisfied 27 (28.1) 136 (60.2) 106 (37.9)   
Very satisfied 2 (2.1) 24 (10.6) 11 (3.9)   
Overall life satisfaction and contentment, n (%)      
Very poor 42 (14.6) 1 (0.4) 27 (9.3)   
Poor 141 (49.1) 25 (10.6) 120 (41.5)   
Fair 87 (30.3) 97 (41.3) 111 (38.4)   
Good 16 (5.6) 90 (38.3) 28 (9.7)   
Very good 1 (0.3) 22 (9.4) 3 (1.0)   
Overall life satisfaction and contentment 2.3 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 0.8 2.5 ± 0.8 <0.0001b a < c < b
  1. HRQoL = health-related quality of life; MDD = major depressive disorder; EQ-5D = European quality of life-5 dimensions; EQ-VAS = European quality of life visual analog scale; Q–LES-Q-SF = the quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction questionnaire short form.
  2. aTukey’s post-hoc test.
  3. bDifference among MDD groups (ANOVA).
  4. cEQ-5D index score = 1(0.164 + 0.003 × M2 + 0.274 × M3 + 0.058 × SC2 + 0.078 × SC3 + 0.045 × UA2 + 0.134 × UA3 +0.049 × PD2 + 0.132 × PD3 + 0.044 × AD2 + 0.102 × AD3 + 0.345 × N3 + 0.014 × I2sq).
  5. Where, M2 = dummy for mobility level 2, M3 = dummy for mobility level 3, SC2 = dummy for self-care level 2, SC3 = dummy for self-care level 3, UA2 = dummy for usual activity level 2, UA3 = dummy for usual activity level 3, PD2 = dummy for pain/discomfort level 2, PD3 = dummy for pain/discomfort level 3, AD2 = dummy for anxiety/depression level 2, AD3 = dummy for anxiety/depression level 3, N3 = 1 if there is any level 3, otherwise N3 = 0, I2sq = the square of 1 minus the number of level 2s.
  6. dSumming only the first 14 items to yield a raw total score.
  7. Each item is calculated as 1 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = fair, 4 = good, 5 = very good.
  8. eQ-LES-Q-SF index score = (Q-LES-Q-SF total score – 14)/56.
  9. Note: Data are represented as mean ± standard deviation or number of patients (%).