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Table 4 Internal-consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity of the K-PAID and K-PAID-5

From: Measurement of diabetes-related emotional distress using the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale: psychometric evaluations show that the short form is better than the full form

Underlying structure Scale/subscales and their names (number of items) Cronbach’s alpha ICC (95% confidence interval) Pearson’sr
CES-D HbA1c
Full form (K-PAID)      
One-factor structurea Single scale (20 items) 0.94 0.89 (0.83-0.94) 0.55* 0.13*
Two-factor structureb Subscale 1: Lack of confidence (7 items) 0.74 0.85 (0.75-0.91) 0.52* 0.15*
  Subscale 2: Negative emotional consequences (13 items) 0.94 0.90 (0.83-0.94) 0.53* 0.12*
Two-factor structurec Subscale 1: Diabetes distress (15 items) 0.93 0.90 (0.84-0.94) 0.52* 0.13*
  Subscale 2: Support-related issues (5 items) 0.77 0.87 (0.76-0.92) 0.57* 0.13*
Three-factor structured Subscale 1: Diabetes-related emotional problems (15 items) 0.93 0.89 (0.82-0.93) 0.55* 0.13*
  Subscale 2: Food-related problems (3 items) 0.73 0.80 (0.66-0.88) 0.41* 0.13*
  Subscale 3: Social-support-related problems (2 items) 0.61 0.81 (0.68-0.89) 0.48* ns
Four-factor structuree Subscale 1: Diabetes-related emotional problems (12 items) 0.94 0.88 (0.81-0.93) 0.54* 0.12*
  Subscale 2: Treatment-related problems (3 items) 0.54 0.30 (-0.18-0.59) 0.32* 0.14*
  Subscale 3: Food-related problems (3 items) 0.74 0.79 (0.66-0.88) 0.41* 0.13*
  Subscale 4: Social-support-related problems (2 items) 0.61 0.81 (0.67-0.89) 0.48* ns
Short form (K-PAID-5)      
One-factor structuref Single scale (5 items) 0.87 0.89 (0.82-0.94) 0.48* 0.14*
  1. aBased on the factor construct of Welch et al. [8]; bBased on the factor construct of Miller et al. [13]; cBased on the factor construct of Huis In ‘t Veld et al. [15]; dBased on the factor construct of Papathanasiou et al. [12]; eBased on the factor construct of Snoek et al. [9]; fBased on the factor construct of McGuire et al. [21]; CES-D, Center for epidemiologic studies-depression; HbA1c, Hemoglobin A1c; *p < 0.01; ns, Not statistically significant