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Table 3 CFA: Goodness-of-fit statistics for the K-PAID and K-PAID-5 models and standardized loadings

From: Measurement of diabetes-related emotional distress using the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale: psychometric evaluations show that the short form is better than the full form

Underlying factor model X2(p) df CMIN/DF GFI RMR RMSEA CFI NFI Standardized loadings
Full form (K-PAID)          
One-factor modela 634.567 (p < 0.001) 169 3.755 0.864 0.074 0.079 0.903 0.873 0.29-0.83
Two-factor modelb 615.042 (p < 0.001) 168 3.661 0.907 0.074 0.078 0.907 0.877 0.31-0.84
Two-factor modelc 580.633 (p < 0.001) 168 3.456 0.876 0.072 0.075 0.914 0.884 0.31-0.84
Three-factor modeld 567.558 (p < 0.001) 166 3.419 0.878 0.072 0.074 0.917 0.887 0.29-0.83
Four-factor modele 561.753 (p < 0.001) 164 3.425 0.880 0.072 0.074 0.918 0.888 0.37-0.88
Short form (K-PAID-5)          
One-factor modelf 11.536 (p = 0.021) 4 2.884 0.990 0.039 0.066 0.993 0.989 0.65-0.84
  1. df, Degrees of freedom; CMIN/DF, Ratio of chi-square value to the degrees of freedom; GFI, Goodness-of-fit index; RMR, Root-mean-square residual; RMSEA, Root-mean-square error of approximation; CFI, Comparative-fit index; NFI, Normed fit index.
  2. aAfter modification with the covariance of error terms between items 1 and 2 [modification index (MI) = 52.59, ∆X2(1) = 55.989, p < 0.01], based on the factor model of Welch et al. [8].
  3. bAfter modification with the covariance of error terms between items 1 and 2 [MI = 51.79, ∆X2(1) = 54.691, p < 0.01], based on the factor model of Miller et al. [13].
  4. cAfter modification with the covariance of error terms between items 1 and 2 [MI = 55.56, ∆X2(1) = 55.718, p < 0.01], based on the factor model of Huis In ‘t Veld et al. [15].
  5. dAfter modification with the covariance of error terms between items 1 and 2 [MI = 53.24, ∆X2(1) = 56.501, p < 0.01], based on the factor model of Papathanasiou et al. [12].
  6. eBased on the factor model of Snoek et al. [9].
  7. fAfter modification with the covariance of error terms between items 3 and 6 [MI = 31.50, ∆X2(1) = 42.026, p < 0.01], based on the factor model by McGuire et al. [21].