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Table 2 Factor analysis of the Japanese version of the MMQL-AF

From: Development of the Japanese version of the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life Survey of Health - Adolescent Form (MMQL-AF) and investigation of its reliability and validity

  Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6
Factor 1: Social functioning & intimate relations       
Have many close friends .89 .00 .00 -.09 -.05 .03
Getting along well with people their age .85 -.01 -.01 .04 -.09 -.04
Having a lot in common with their friends .75 .04 -.12 -.09 -.09 .05
Being together with other people gives them a good feeling .75 -.09 -.04 -.03 -.03 .11
Having similar hobbies and interests to people their age .73 -.07 .00 -.07 .08 .02
Feel left out in groups of people their age -.63 -.17 -.04 -.05 -.06 .06
Difficulty in making friends -.57 -.07 -.08 -.16 -.11 .13
Find it easy to have an intimate relationship .53 .04 .05 .04 .20 -.03
Believing that people like to be with them .49 -.08 .15 .06 -.11 .11
Feel confident when they are with people of opposite sex .48 -.05 .00 .07 .10 -.03
Factor 2: Psychological functioning       
Feeling sad -.01 .88 .03 -.03 -.08 .01
Feeling nervous or anxious .01 .88 .05 -.07 .02 -.07
Feeling frightened -.07 .87 .09 -.04 -.01 -.01
Feeling lonely .13 .80 .05 -.10 .01 -.12
Feeling angry .05 .73 .01 .02 -.11 .04
Worried about things in general .00 .60 -.15 -.02 .11 .09
Worried about dying -.08 .50 .02 -.13 .06 .06
Feeling tired during the day .03 .49 -.04 .34 .02 .03
Worried about their health -.18 .41 -.12 .15 .18 .14
Factor 3: Cognitive functioning       
Difficulty with school work compared with others in class -.03 .05 .80 -.10 .01 -.03
Homework or study is hard for them .06 .03 -.77 -.11 .06 -.06
Difficulty in concentrating at school .07 .01 -.70 -.12 .06 -.08
Difficulty in concentrating at work or school -.01 -.06 .69 -.03 .20 .00
Needing more help with school work than others in class .00 .06 -.66 -.07 .06 -.14
Difficulty with math or calculations .11 -.08 .64 -.09 .16 -.09
Difficulty with reading or writing -.03 .12 .62 -.04 -.03 -.13
Difficulty with remembering things at school/college .05 .07 .61 .02 -.03 .05
Difficulty concentrating at other times (computer/games/playing cards/reading) -.05 -.03 -.43 .03 .08 -.14
Factor 4: Physical functioning       
Unable to keep up with others of their age when taking part in sports -.05 -.14 .03 .80 -.05 -.04
Unable to do many activities because of health .13 .02 .01 -.80 -.06 .10
Unable to do many activities because of arms or legs -.04 .06 .01 -.72 .05 .14
Have a lot of energy for running or sports .18 -.06 -.03 .66 -.04 .06
Feel strong and healthy .04 -.01 -.01 -.59 -.14 -.13
Need time during day to rest .00 -.11 -.24 -.50 .11 -.01
Have a lot of energy .15 .16 -.16 .49 -.02 .24
Factor 5: Body image       
Liking their body the way it is -.08 -.02 -.02 .02 .74 .15
Feelings about their body development .01 .06 -.06 .01 .72 .03
Being happy about the way they look .11 -.02 .04 -.24 .68 .11
Feeling uncomfortable about the way their body is developing .01 .05 .01 -.26 -.68 .07
Being satisfied about their weight -.04 .05 .00 -.19 .66 .00
Feeling that others think that their body is poorly developed -.03 -.04 -.09 -.16 -.59 .18
Factor 6: Outlook on life       
Satisfied with the current life situation .02 .01 .04 -.02 -.04 .83
Happy with life in general -.03 .06 .06 .00 .08 .77
Happy with the way things are .10 .01 .03 -.12 .07 .65
Factor correlation Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 Factor 5 Factor 6
Factor 1 - .56 .47 .40 .43 .42
Factor 2   - .44 .37 .47 .50
Factor 3    - .36 .36 .37
Factor 4     - .24 .34
Factor 5      - .43
Factor 6       -
α .89 .89 .88 .83 .83 .84
  1. Extraction method is principle factor analysis using Promax rotation with Kaiser normalization.
  2. Factor loadings greater than 0.40 are shown in boldface.
  3. MMQL-AF: Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life Survey of Health - Adolescent Form., α: Cronbach’s coefficient.