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Table 7 Factor loading of PMH instrument in overall sample and across gender, ethnicity and age groups

From: The positive mental health instrument: development and validation of a culturally relevant scale in a multi-ethnic asian population

Factor Item Factor loading
   Total Gender Ethnicity Age
    Female Male Chinese Malay Indian 21-40y 41-65y
   N = 404 N = 205 N = 197 N = 134 N = 123 N = 141 N = 180 N = 184
General coping When I feel stressed ....         
  I try to move on 0.74 0.73 0.74 0.73 0.64 0.80 0.66 0.80
  I try not to let it bother me 0.76 0.73 0.80 0.70 0.72 0.81 0.65 0.85
  I tell myself that things would get better 0.78 0.75 0.80 0.83 0.66 0.75 0.74 0.80
  I try to relax 0.76 0.74 0.77 0.72 0.80 0.71 0.70 0.78
  I try not to take it too seriously 0.71 0.67 0.73 0.63 0.68 0.75 0.62 0.76
  I do something to get my mind off the situation 0.72 0.69 0.75 0.67 0.82 0.71 0.66 0.80
  I try to see it in a positive light 0.81 0.84 0.77 0.83 0.75 0.82 0.83 0.80
  I try to see the humorous side of the situation 0.63 0.68 0.58 0.61 0.60 0.64 0.60 0.66
  I try to solve the problem one step at a time 0.79 0.80 0.78 0.84 0.84 0.77 0.77 0.79
Emotional support In general...         
  I spend time with people I like 0.76 0.78 0.71 0.74 0.71 0.82 0.79 0.73
  I try to get Emotional support from family and friends 0.54 0.61 0.49 0.51 0.65 0.48 0.49 0.55
  I have people in my life who give me support 0.84 0.83 0.86 0.84 0.85 0.84 0.82 0.81
  I have a close family 0.84 0.86 0.81 0.86 0.76 0.86 0.71 0.92
  When I have a problem there is someone I can go to for advice 0.83 0.84 0.83 0.88 0.74 0.81 0.84 0.81
  There is someone to cheer me up if I am having a bad day 0.86 0.84 0.88 0.91 0.73 0.94 0.88 0.83
  When I am in a difficult situation there is someone I can rely on 0.88 0.90 0.85 0.94 0.82 0.91 0.91 0.87
Spirituality In general...         
  I find comfort in my religion or spiritual beliefs 0.85 0.84 0.87 0.86 0.82 0.75 0.87 0.87
  I believe God has a plan for me 0.88 0.86 0.89 0.91 0.78 0.78 0.90 0.88
  I set aside time for meditation or prayer 0.88 0.86 0.91 0.87 0.81 0.88 0.89 0.88
  I believe there is a higher being who looks after me 0.90 0.92 0.88 0.92 0.71 0.91 0.90 0.91
  I feel gods presence in my life 0.95 0.94 0.97 0.93 0.89 0.96 0.97 0.95
  I gain spiritual strength by trusting in a higher power. 0.84 0.82 0.85 0.93 0.61 0.81 0.86 0.80
  My religious beliefs influence the way I live 0.87 0.87 0.86 0.91 0.72 0.82 0.87 0.87
Interpersonal skills In general...         
  I get along well with others 0.87 0.91 0.84 0.89 0.83 0.88 0.79 0.91
  I make friends easily 0.84 0.80 0.86 0.82 0.86 0.81 0.82 0.87
  I make an effort to help others 0.77 0.89 0.66 0.73 0.82 0.79 0.75 0.78
  I try to accept people as they are 0.77 0.80 0.75 0.78 0.65 0.85 0.71 0.83
  I am willing to compromise with people 0.66 0.68 0.65 0.61 0.66 0.68 0.61 0.76
  I try to be patient with others 0.74 0.75 0.73 0.75 0.65 0.78 0.68 0.80
  I am willing to give up something if it makes my family or friends happy 0.60 0.54 0.69 0.62 0.61 0.62 0.50 0.70
  I have no trouble keeping friends 0.76 0.73 0.80 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.75 0.80
  I am willing to share my time with others 0.75 0.79 0.71 0.76 0.77 0.75 0.75 0.81
Personal growth and autonomy In general...         
  I have confidence in the decisions I make 0.84 0.85 0.84 0.87 0.79 0.85 0.82 0.86
  I feel comfortable expressing my opinions 0.81 0.80 0.83 0.80 0.85 0.78 0.81 0.83
  I am able to control many situations around me 0.81 0.75 0.87 0.84 0.79 0.79 0.83 0.79
  I have freedom to make choices that concern my future 0.78 0.77 0.80 0.85 0.75 0.76 0.73 0.84
  I feel in control of my life 0.60 0.49 0.69 0.69 0.45 0.66 0.61 0.60
  I work hard to achieve my goals 0.82 0.79 0.85 0.78 0.76 0.87 0.82 0.81
  I am clear about what I want in life 0.85 0.86 0.85 0.88 0.74 0.92 0.88 0.82
  I am able to solve my own problems 0.83 0.81 0.84 0.84 0.80 0.85 0.79 0.86
  I am focused on what I want to do in life 0.87 0.85 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.88 0.84 0.90
  I know what I need to do to reach my goals 0.84 0.83 0.84 0.81 0.80 0.88 0.83 0.88
Global affect          
  calm 0.77 0.82 0.71 0.67 0.82 0.84 0.73 0.75
  happy 0.88 0.91 0.85 0.87 0.84 0.92 0.87 0.90
  peaceful 0.92 0.91 0.93 0.89 0.90 0.98 0.96 0.88
  relaxed 0.84 0.88 0.80 0.80 0.87 0.83 0.83 0.87
  enthusiastic 0.75 0.76 0.74 0.83 0.67 0.71 0.70 0.78