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Table 4 Stages of item reduction from the initial 182 items

From: The positive mental health instrument: development and validation of a culturally relevant scale in a multi-ethnic asian population

Analysis Items removed Reason (s) for removal Items used for subsequent analysis
EFA 54 Poor factor loadings 128
  49 Redundant content, poor performance as compared to similarly worded items 79
CFA 16 Based on modification indices, item loading and content 63
Item performance 5 High ceiling effect 58
IRT-DIF 11 Demonstrated Dif across important subgroups 47
  1. CFA: Confirmatory Factor Analysis; EFA:Exploratory Factor Analysis; IRT- DIF:Item response theory and Differential item functioning;