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Table 5 Multivariate analysis of factors associated with problems in EQ-5D Dimensions & Cognitive Ability

From: A cohort study of short-term functional outcomes following injury: the role of pre-injury socio-demographic and health characteristics, injury and injury-related healthcare

  EQ-5D Dimensions   
  Mobility Self-Care Usual Activities Pain, Discomfort Anxiety, Depression Cognitive
  N = 2460 N = 2461 N = 2460 N = 2456 N = 2459 N = 2458
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Socio-demographic             
Female 1.34 (1.09, 1.65) 1.40 (1.14, 1.73) 1.53 (1.28, 1.84) 1.62 (1.32, 1.97) 1.23 (0.98, 1.53) 1.63 (1.21, 2.20)
Age (yrs)             
18-24 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref
25-44 1.17 (0.86, 1.61) 1.09 (0.79, 1.52) 1.18 (0.91, 1.54) 1.74 (1.32, 2.28) 1.13 (0.81, 1.59) 1.13 (0.71, 1.79)
45-64 1.61 (1.16, 2.21) 1.60 (1.15, 2.23) 1.25 (0.96, 1.64) 1.74 (1.31, 2.30) 1.38 (0.98, 1.96) 0.96 (0.59, 1.55)
Insufficient money 1.25 (0.89, 1.77) 1.33 (0.96, 1.84) 1.26 (0.94, 1.70) 1.34 (0.96, 1.87) 1.70 (1.22, 2.37) 0.97 (0.60, 1.56)
Health and disability             
Disability 1.36 (1.01, 1.82) 1.05 (0.79, 1.40) 1.17 (0.90, 1.52) 1.46 (1.08, 1.99) 0.79 (0.58, 1.07) 0.81 (0.53, 1.21)
Two or more chronic illnesses 1.47 (1.12, 1.92) 1.18 (0.90, 1.53) 1.27 (1.00, 1.62) 1.52 (1.16, 2.00) 1.62 (1.24, 2.11) 1.79 (1.26, 2.54)
Fair/Poor overall health 0.92 (0.73, 1.15) 0.78 (0.62, 0.98) 0.90 (0.73, 1.09) 0.81 (0.66, 1.01) 1.10 (0.87, 1.40) 1.42 (1.04, 1.95)
Obese 1.23 (0.98, 1.54) 1.26 (1.01, 1.58) 1.21 (0.99, 1.48) 1.04 (0.84, 1.29) 0.86 (0.67, 1.10) 1.26 (0.92, 1.73)
Depressed 1.06 (0.83, 1.35) 1.16 (0.91, 1.47) 1.14 (0.92, 1.42) 0.96 (0.76, 1.21) 1.57 (1.23, 2.01) 1.14 (0.81, 1.59)
Smoke regularly 1.13 (0.90, 1.41) 1.21 (0.97, 1.50) 1.02 (0.84, 1.24) 1.24 (1.01, 1.54) 1.19 (0.95, 1.50) 1.26 (0.93, 1.73)
Hazardous alcohol use 1.03 (0.84, 1.27) 0.96 (0.78, 1.19) 1.22 (1.01, 1.46) 1.24 (1.02, 1.51) 0.85 (0.68, 1.06) 0.77 (0.57, 1.05)
Physically inactive 0.89 (0.73, 1.08) 0.82 (0.67, 1.00) 0.83 (0.70, 0.99) 0.82 (0.68, 0.99) 0.73 (0.59, 0.90) 0.68 (0.51, 0.91)
Injury and healthcare             
Body region injured             
Lower Extremity 3.17 (2.40, 4.18) 0.73 (0.54, 0.99) 0.75 (0.57, 0.98) 0.79 (0.59, 1.06) 0.68 (0.50, 0.93) 0.42 (0.28, 0.62)
Upper Extremity 0.15 (0.10, 0.21) 1.27 (0.93, 1.73) 0.70 (0.53, 0.93) 0.78 (0.57, 1.06) 0.64 (0.46, 0.89) 0.46 (0.30, 0.71)
Head & Neck 0.41 (0.23, 0.73) 0.41 (0.20, 0.80) 0.53 (0.32, 0.87) 0.29 (0.17, 0.48) 0.95 (0.56, 1.63) 2.26 (1.27, 4.01)
Spine & Back 1.74 (1.19, 2.53) 1.30 (0.87, 1.95) 1.12 (0.78, 1.62) 0.84 (0.56, 1.26) 0.68 (0.44, 1.04) 1.02 (0.60, 1.73)
Torso 0.38 (0.19, 0.77) 0.72 (0.35, 1.47) 0.37 (0.20, 0.68) 0.54 (0.30, 0.99) 0.27 (0.11, 0.68) 0.11 (0.02, 0.57)
Multiple regions 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref
Nature of injury             
Fractures 0.87 (0.64, 1.17) 1.18 (0.88, 1.58) 0.92 (0.71, 1.18) 0.98 (0.75, 1.28) 1.03 (0.75, 1.41) 0.66 (0.42, 1.04)
Sprains & Strains 1.16 (0.89, 1.50) 1.21 (0.92, 1.59) 1.08 (0.86, 1.36) 1.19 (0.92, 1.53) 1.04 (0.78, 1.38) 0.65 (0.43, 0.98)
Concussion 1.06 (0.30, 3.76) 0.48 (0.06, 3.97) 2.09 (0.67, 6.49) 1.07 (0.35, 3.29) 1.03 (0.31, 3.39) 1.89 (0.61, 5.85)
Open Wounds/Amputations 0.40 (0.21, 0.75) 0.60 (0.35, 1.03) 0.45 (0.29, 0.69) 0.49 (0.32, 0.75) 0.65 (0.36, 1.15) 0.52 (0.23, 1.20)
Contusions/Superficial 0.69 (0.36, 1.33) 0.62 (0.29, 1.32) 0.46 (0.25, 0.83) 0.55 (0.31, 0.99) 0.82 (0.39, 1.71) 0.36 (0.11, 1.18)
Other single injury type 1.03 (0.71, 1.50) 1.16 (0.81, 1.68) 0.74 (0.54, 1.02) 0.72 (0.52, 1.02) 1.17 (0.80, 1.73) 0.69 (0.41, 1.17)
Multiple injury types 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref 1.00 ref
Assaultive intent 1.09 (0.46, 1.95) 1.36 (0.79, 2.33) 1.38 (0.84, 2.27) 1.19 (0.70, 2.02) 1.71 (1.01, 2.88) 2.74 (1.56, 4.82)
Admitted to hospital 1.76 (1.41, 2.20) 1.71 (1.37, 2.13) 1.84 (1.51, 2.23) 1.42 (1.15, 1.75) 1.38 (1.10, 1.74) 1.53 (1.12, 2.08)
Self-perceived threat to life 1.37 (1.00, 1.88) 1.43 (1.05, 1.95) 1.28 (0.95, 1.73) 1.06 (0.76, 1.48) 1.83 (1.35, 2.50) 2.80 (1.93, 4.07)
Self-perceived threat of disability 1.41 (1.15, 1.73) 1.31 (1.06, 1.62) 1.34 (1.12, 1.60) 1.87 (1.53, 2.29) 1.41 (1.13, 1.76) 0.81 (0.60, 1.11)
Trouble accessing healthcare services 1.79 (1.30, 2.47) 1.52 (1.12, 2.07) 1.88 (1.40, 2.52) 1.72 (1.22, 2.41) 1.77 (1.30, 2.42) 2.17 (1.47, 3.20)