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Table 3 Model characteristics and differences between the four groups, after adjusting for age, gender, VI, number of comorbidities other than CVCs, duration of PXE and help needed to fill in questionnaires (analysis of covariance).

From: The relative impact of vision impairment and cardiovascular disease on quality of life: the example of pseudoxanthoma elasticum

  Adjusted mean/RC* 95% CI Significance of the model/change* Partial Eta2 +
     Corrected model Groups A-D as a predictor within the model
Functional IVI    p < 0.001 0.812 + 0.241 +
   Group A (reference) 23.66 (20.92; 26.40)    
   Group B -1.89 (-4.91; 1.13) 0.216   
   Group C -5.60 (-9.19; -2.01) 0.003   
   Group D -6.90 (-10.41; -3.39) < 0.001   
Emotional IVI    p < 0.001 0.662 + 0.128 +
   Group A (reference) 7.47 (5.97; 8.97)    
   Group B -0.33 (-1.88; 1.22) 0.777   
   Group C 1.94 (0.06; 3.82) 0.043   
   Group D 1.32 (-0.66; 3.31) 0.188   
Rasch guided SF-36 Physical Functioning    p = 0.086 0.187+ 0.064+
   Group A (reference) 21.50 (15.51; 27.49)    
   Group B -2.34 (-8.66; 3.97) 0.461   
   Group C -6.03 (-13.49; 1.45) 0.111   
   Group D -0.81 (-8.70; 7.09) 0.839   
Rasch guided SF-36 Mental Health    p = 0.093 0.159+ 0.044+
   Group A (reference) 16.28 (12.06; 20.50)    
   Group B -3.77 (-8.41; 0.87) 0.109   
   Group C -0.19 (-5.87; 5.49) 0.947   
   Group D -2.28 (-7.64; 3.09) 0.400   
  1. Presented are fully adjusted models including interactions between all variables.
  2. Functional and emotional subscale scores of both the IVI and SF-36 contributed reciprocally and were also adjusted for.
  3. RC = regression coefficient, *reported for the model/change of mean in groups compared to group A (reference); CI = Confidence interval; Group A = No impairment; Group B = Only CVCs; Group C = Only VI; Group D = CVCs & VI; Bolded values indicate statistical significance; + Partial Eta2 effect size: ≥0.01 small, ≥0.06 medium, ≥0.14 large effect[53]