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Table 4 Outcomes of studies: Medical and occupational setting

From: Type D personality in the general population: a systematic review of health status, mechanisms of disease, and work-related problems

  Outcome Study Participants Conclusion
(4a) Medical: mechanisms of disease [22] 932 female teachers (Belgium and Netherlands) Female teachers with a Type D personality were significantly less likely to get treatment for their voice complaints than their non-Type D counterparts (25.7% vs. 39.3%; p = 0.016).
   [26] 1012 adults
(U.K. and Ireland)
Type D individuals had fewer regular medical checkups (p = 0.027), and were less likely to eat sensibly (p = 0.033) or to spend time outdoors (p < 0.001) compared to non-Type Ds.
   [8] 564 males
(U.K.)
Body dissatisfaction is more prevalent in Type D's or in men who are sedentary. The interaction between Type D and being sedentary is detrimental because it can influence health risk behaviors
   [25] 84 adults
(U.K.)
Men with a Type D personality, but not women, exhibited higher cardiac output during experimental stress compared to non-Type D men (F[3, 37] = 3.4; p < 0.05).
   [11] 173 university students
(Canada)
Socially inhibited men had heightened systolic and diastolic blood pressure reactivity (p < 0.05); negative affectivity was related to dampened heart rate reactivity in men (p < 0.05).
   [10] 17 men
(Netherlands)
The difference in amygdala activity in reaction to fearful vs. neutral face/body expressions was present in non-Type Ds (p = 0.004) but was absent in Type D individuals (p = 0.110).
   [15] 3331 healthy twins
(Netherlands)
Type D personality was substantially heritable (52%); heritability for negative affectivity was 46%, while heritability for social inhibition was 50%.
(4b) Occupational: work-related problems [12] 492 employees at manufactory
(Germany)
Employees with a Type D personality were more often absent from work than their non-Type D counterparts (β = 0.499; p < 0.01).
   [20] 634 employees at manufactory
(Germany)
Employees with a Type D personality were more likely to report symptoms of vital exhaustion than non-Type Ds (r = 0.574; p < 0.001)
   [17] 79 psychiatrists and nurses
(Poland)
Individuals with a Type D personality perceived their workplace as more stressful and had a higher level of burnout than non-Type D individuals.
   [14] 151 prison workers
(Netherlands)
Type Ds were more at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder than non-Type Ds (OR 9.09; 95%CI = 2.1-39.1; p < 0.005); this risk increased when exposed to inmate aggression.