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Table 3 Outcomes of studies: Health status

From: Type D personality in the general population: a systematic review of health status, mechanisms of disease, and work-related problems

  Outcome Study Participants Conclusion
(3a) Mental health status [23] 622 adults
(Netherlands)
Type D individuals experienced more symptoms of depression (r = 0.42; p < 0.01) and anxiety (r = 0.35; P < 0.01) compared to non-Type D individuals.
   [9] 155 policemen and nurses
(Belgium)
Type D individuals experienced more symptoms of depression (9.1 vs. 7.7; p < 0.01) and anxiety (14.1 vs. 11.1; p < 0.001) compared to non-Type D individuals.
   [18] 250 university students
(Ukraine)
Type D individuals experienced more symptoms of depression (p < 0.001), anxiety (p < 0.001), and negative affect (p < 0.001), as well as less positive affect (p < 0.001) than non-Type Ds.
   [13] 668 children
(Netherlands)
Children with a Type D personality reported more negative mood states (10.43 vs. 6.96) and more non-productive thoughts (10.15 vs. 5.13) than non-Type D children.
   [17] 79 psychiatrists and nurses
(Poland)
Individuals with a Type D personality manifested significantly more symptoms of mental health disorders than non-Type D individuals.
   [24] 132 adults
(Belgium)
Type D individuals had more symptoms of mental distress (r s > .38) compared to non-Type D; Type D has a more adverse effect with low levels of authoritarianism (β = .62; p < 0.01).
   [19] 334 university students
(U.K.)
Type D's tend to use more passive and maladaptive avoidance coping strategies such as resignation and withdrawal. This is associated with higher levels of perceived stress and burnout symptoms.
   [25] 84 adults
(U.K.)
In an experimental research setting, Type D individuals exhibited higher feelings of subjective stress compared to non-Type D individuals (F(1.83) = 6.43; p < 0.03).
   [26] 1012 adults
(U.K. and Ireland)
Type D individuals reported lower levels of social support (12.7 vs. 14.7; p < 0.001), and they were more likely to let things get them down (p < 0.001) compared to non-Type Ds.
(3b) Physical health status [13] 668 children
(Netherlands)
Children with a Type D personality reported more somatic complaints (24 vs. 18; p < 0.05) compare to non-Type D children.
   [23] 622 adults
(Netherlands)
Individuals with a Type D personality reported a significantly lower health status (all p s < 0.01) compared to non-Type D individuals.
   [9] 155 policemen and nurses
(Belgium)
Individuals with a Type D personality reported a significantly lower health status (50.4 vs. 42.5; p < 0.001) compared to non-Type D individuals.
   [21] 5404 adults
(Netherlands)
Negative affectivity was related to more influenza-like illness reporting (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009); however, social inhibition to less influenza-like illness reporting (OR = 0.97; p = 0.011).
   [22] 932 female teachers
(Belgium and Netherlands)
Female teachers with a Type D personality were more bothered by their voice complaints (10 vs. 7; p < 0.001) than their non-Type D counterparts.
   [16] 755 student teachers
(Belgium and Netherlands)
Type D student teachers had a 4× greater risk of a high Voice Handicap Inventory score (rating the subjective biopsychosocial consequences caused by voice problems) than the non-Type D group.