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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by frailty status (n = 239).

From: Dimensions and correlates of quality of life according to frailty status: a cross-sectional study on community-dwelling older adults referred to an outpatient geriatric service in Italy

Variables Robust
(n= 72)
Pre-Frail
(n= 89)
Frail
(n= 78)
  Mean (SD) or % ( n ) Mean (SD) or % ( n ) Mean (SD) or % ( n )
Age (years) 79.4 (6.2) 81.5 (6.2) 83.5 (5.8)
Civil status    
    Unmarried 5 (4) 21 (19) 9 (7)
    Married 49 (35) 24 (21) 31 (24)
    Divorced 4 (3) 6 (5) 4 (3)
    Widowed 42 (30) 49 (44) 57 (44)
No caregiver 49 (35) 46 (41) 23 (18)
Informal Caregiver: Spouse 26 (19) 9 (8) 17 (13)
Informal Caregiver: Child 19 (14) 36 (32) 41 (32)
Paid personal assistance 10 (7) 14 (12) 24 (19)
Living alone 36 (26) 55 (49) 41 (32)
Any hospital admission in the past year 6 (4) 16 (14) 24 (19)
BADL score a 5.1 (1.4) 4.7 (1.5) 3.3 (1.8)
IADL score b 5.3 (2.8) 4.8 (2.8) 2.8 (2.2)
GDS score c 7.4 (4.8) 12.2 (7.6) 13.3 (7.1)
CIRS m score d 3.7 (1.6) 4.2 (1.7) 5.0 (2.0)
Any osteomuscular disease 39 (28) 57 (51) 77 (60)
Depression 31 (22) 58 (51) 64 (50)
Number of drugs taken 4.4 (2.7) 5.4 (2.8) 6.4 (2.9)
OPQOL total score e 125.9 (13.2) 115.6 (13.9) 107.4 (12.6)
    Life overall 14.9 (2.4) 13.0 (2.8) 12.0 (3.2)
    Health 12.9 (2.6) 10.5 (2.8) 8.2 (2.8)
   Social relationships and participation 17.8 (3.2) 17.2 (3.3) 17.2 (3.5)
    Independence, control over life, freedom 14.2 (2.9) 12.4 (3) 10.7 (2.8)
    Home and neighbourhood 16.7 (2.2) 15.9 (2.4) 15.3 (1.8)
    Psychological and emotional well-being 15.1 (2.5) 13.7 (2.9) 12.6 (2.6)
   Financial circumstances 13.5 (3.2) 13.1 (3.0) 12.8 (3.3)
    Leisure, activities and religion 20.8 (3.5) 19.7 (3.1) 18.7 (2.5)
  1. Notes: Variables in bold are significant at p < 0.05; Besides quality of life assessment, reported in this table are only the variables significantly related to frailty status; All the variables and their p-values are reported in the Additional file 1.
  2. a) Basic Activities of Daily Living. Score range 0 - 6. Higher scores indicate greater independence.
  3. b) Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. Score range 0-8. Higher scores indicate greater independence.
  4. c) Thirty item - Geriatric Depression Scale. Score range 0 - 30. Higher scores indicate worse depressive status. This variable was analysed only in participants without dementia or suffering from mild dementia: 61 subjects belonging to the "robust" group, 77 subjects to the "pre-frail" group and 65 subjects to the "frail" group.
  5. d) Cumulative Illness Rating Scale morbidity. Scores 0-13. Higher scores indicate higher morbidity.
  6. e) Older People's Quality of Life (OPQOL) questionnaire. Total score range 35-175. Higher scores indicate better quality of life.