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Table 3 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) data in the patient group before and after surgery as compared to the population norm.

From: Anxiety and depression in association with morbid obesity: changes with improved physical health after duodenal switch

  T0
(n = 50)
T1
(n = 47)
T2
(n = 44)
Population norm
(n = 57616)
HADS anxiety     
   Mean ± SD 7.8 ± 4.4 5.1 ± 4.0 5.0 ± 3.8 4.4
   Effect size 0.77 0.18 0.16 Reference
   Score ≥ 8 points (%) 50.0 27.2 22.7 16.1
HADS depression     
   Mean ± SD 6.3 ± 4.6 2.1 ± 2.3 2.2 ± 3.0 3.0
   Effect size 0.72 -0.39 -0.27 Reference
   Score ≥ 8 points (%) 36.0 2.1 4.5 8.1
  1. Note. T0 is before surgery, T1 is one year after surgery, and T2 is two years after surgery. The population norm scores are adjusted for age and gender. Effect size is calculated by subtracting the mean score of the population norm from the mean score of the patient group divided by the standard deviation of the patient group. Effect sizes <0.2 are considered trivial compared to the population norm. Effect sizes from 0.2 to <0.5 are considered small, from 0.5 to <0.8 as moderate, and ≥ 0.8 as large. The effects size of the HADS scores can be either zero (identical mean scores in both populations), positive (worse score than the norm population), or negative (better score than the norm population).