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Table 1 A summary of the five GHQ models

From: A Rasch and confirmatory factor analysis of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) - 12

Items GHQ-12 Two factor1 Three factor2 GHQ-83 GHQ-6
   Positive Negative Social Dysfunction Anxiety/Depression Confidence Social Dysfunction Anxiety/Depression  
Been able to concentrate * *   *      
Lost much sleep over worry *   *   *     
Felt that you are playing a useful part * *   *      
Felt capable of making decisions * *   *    *   
Felt constantly under strain *   *   *     *
Felt you couldn't overcome your difficulties *   *   *    * *
Been able to enjoy your normal activities * *   *    *   
Been able to face up to your problems * *   *    *   *
Been feeling unhappy and depressed *   *   *    * *
Been losing confidence in yourself *   *    *   * *
Been thinking of yourself as worthless *   *    *   *  
Been feeling reasonably happy * *   *    *   *
  1. 1Andrich & van Schoubroeck (1989)
  2. 2Graetz (1991)
  3. 3Kalliath et al. (2004)